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June 1, 2019
198: Unexpectedly pathogenic bacteriophages
The TWiM team presents an extracellular bacterium associated with Paramecium, and induction of antiviral immunity by a bacteriophage that prevents bacterial clearance.
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60 min
April 26, 2019
197: Intercellular microbial trade
The Microbials reveal how a chemosynthetic symbiont stores energy for its marine flatworm host, and extraction of nutrients from host cells by E. coli injectisome components.
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70 min
March 29, 2019
196: I hear you
The Microbials discuss how ambrosia beetles utilize ethanol to farm fungi, and how cleaved cochlin protein sequesters bacteria in the inner ear to preserve hearing function.
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63 min
March 4, 2019
195: Gingipain in the Alzheimer brain
Michael and Vincent discuss the finding of immunity to Cas9 protein in humans, and a potential role for an oral bacterium in Alzheimer’s disease.
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74 min
February 14, 2019
194: Standard imperial procedure
How a bacterium helps dengue virus replicate in the mosquito gut, and minicells as a damage disposal mechanism in E. coli.
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65 min
January 31, 2019
193: Persisters
The TWiM team explore how Lactobacillus reuteri can rescue social deficits in three mouse models of autism spectrum disorder, and the role of Salmonella persisters in undermining host defenses during antibiotic treatment.
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60 min
January 18, 2019
192: A Qtip for phages
The TWiM team reveals an extremely low rate of mutation in a 2500 year old, 185 acre fungus in Michigan, and how a host-produced quorum sensing autoinducer controls the phage switch between lysis and lysogeny.
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66 min
December 21, 2018
191: By the pulp of their teeth
The TWiM team reveals the oldest human plague from 4,900 years ago in Sweden, and engineering E. coli to become an endosymbiont in yeast, modeling the evolution of mitochondria.
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61 min
December 7, 2018
190: Exosomes in your nose and in your gut
The TWiM-opods consider two stories about exosomes, vesicles that are shed from cells: those that eliminate airway pathogens, and those from the plants we eat that shape our gut microbiome. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Android, RSS, or by email. Get the entire ASM Podcast Network via our Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Exosome swarms eliminate airway pathogens (J Aller Clin Immunol) Exosome release from Bacteria, Eukaryotes, Archaea (Infect Immun) Plant exosomes shape gut microbiome (Cell Host Microbe) Image credit Subscribe to MicrobeTV on YouTube TWiM Listener survey Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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78 min
November 16, 2018
189: Salmonella BonJovi
The TWiM team considers the state of the world’s fungi as revealed by a report from the Kew Royal Botanical Gardens, and how Salmonella loses motility to evade host defenses.
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71 min
October 31, 2018
188: Turducken antibiotics
The TWiM rock stars show how to modify gram-positive antibiotics so they can kill gram-negative cells, and bacteria that have both DNA and RNA in their genome.
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80 min
October 19, 2018
187: Rounding up the bees
The TWiM people reveal that phages must cooperate to overcome CRISPR-Cas defenses, and the effect of the herbicide glyphosate on the gut microbiome of honey bees.
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66 min
October 5, 2018
186: Crypto-metamorphosis
The TWiM team describe the involvement of a microbiome in snail metamorphosis, and using Listeria to kill tumors.
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73 min
September 21, 2018
185: There’s no moa Moa
The TWiM team considers the increasing tolerance of Enterococcus to handwash alcohols, and how the study of DNA in ancient dung reveals the diet and parasite burden of extinct New Zealand birds.
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68 min
September 7, 2018
184: CRISPR-Cas immune systems
Sam Sternberg discusses his work on exploring and exploiting CRISPR-Cas immune systems, beginning as a graduate student with Jennifer Doudna, at a biotech start-up, and in his laboratory at Columbia University.
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86 min
August 23, 2018
183: Two symbioses
The TWiMpeeps discuss two symbioses: a parasitoid bacterium of a heterotrophic protist, and fungal parasites in cicadas.
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57 min
August 9, 2018
182: A micro story with macro implications
The TWiM hosts reveal how to test antimicrobial susceptibility in less than 30 minutes, and a carbonate-sensitive phytotransferrin in diatoms that controls iron uptake.
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65 min
July 26, 2018
181: Dr. Warhol’s Periodic Table of Microbes
Vincent speaks with John Warhol about state microbes, the Periodic Table of the Microbes, and why microbiology is cooler than astrophysics, but they have better TV shows. Host: Vincent Racaniello Guest: John Warhol Subscribe to TWiM (free) on Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Android, RSS, or by email. Get the entire ASM Podcast Network via our Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode State Microbe (Wikipedia) Micro Minutes! (tumblr) Warhol Science on Etsy Periodic Table of Microbes (Amazon) Image credit Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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58 min
July 13, 2018
180: Microbecentricity with Mark O. Martin
Vincent speaks with Mark O. Martin about microbial centricity, teaching undergraduates microbiology, lux art, painting with glowing bacteria, tardigrades and much more at ASM Microbe 2018. Host: Vincent Racaniello Guest: Mark O. Martin Subscribe to TWiM (free) on Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Android, RSS, or by email. Get the entire ASM Podcast Network via our Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Microbial menagerie All creatures great and small Carski Award Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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64 min
June 29, 2018
179: Viable but not culturable
The TwiModulators discuss aerosolization of bacteria and viruses in an ocean-atmosphere mesocosm, and how the common practice of decontaminating produce with chlorine produces viable but non-culturable pathogens. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode: Taxon-specific aerosolization of bacteria and viruses (Nat Commun) Chlorine produces viable but non-culturable bacteria (mBio) Chlorine washing fails bacteria test (Guardian) Foodborne illness in US: Major pathogens (CDC) Chlorine dilution calculator (Public Health Toronto) Multistate foodborne outbreak investigations (CDC)
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76 min
June 15, 2018
178: Corals are sexy with Christina Kellogg
The TWiM team travels to ASM Microbe 2018 in Atlanta, Georgia to speak with Christina Kellogg about her career and her research on coral microbial ecology.
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64 min
June 1, 2018
177: Microbial sibling conflict
The TWiM team discuss bacteriophage evolution in a dairy plant, and killing of less fit cells among social microbes.
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54 min
May 17, 2018
176: Elio has lots of colanic acid
Vincent, Michael and Elio note the passing of Stanley Falkow, give E. coli an archaeal membrane, and show how the microbiome can make worms live longer.
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59 min
May 2, 2018
175: Neomycin is antiviral
The TWiM team notes the passing of Allan Campbell, and explains how aminoglycoside antibiotics like neomycin enhance host resistance to viral infection.
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63 min
April 19, 2018
174: A Gathering Typhoid Storm
The TWiMsters explain why untreatable typhoid fever might be on the way, and the evolution of fungal virulence in tropical frogs.
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62 min
March 30, 2018
173: Gee whiz in style
The Masters of the Microbiological Universe discuss the humongouest fungus, and a commensal bacterium that protects against skin neoplasia.
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58 min
March 15, 2018
172: Unfolding relaxases and soil malacidins
The TWiMmers discuss culture-independent discovery of malacidin antibiotics, and unfolding of relaxase during bacterial conjugation.
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73 min
February 22, 2018
171: If you give a bee a fungus
The TWiM team explores a stingless bee that requires a fungal steroid to pupate, and colonic biofilms containing tumorigenic bacteria in patients with colorectal polyps. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Bee larvae require fungal steroid to pupate (Sci Rep) Biofilm refuge for tumorigenic bacteria (Science) Letters read on TWiM 171 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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60 min
February 8, 2018
170: Rats, lice, and nanoparticles
The TWiM team reveals that spread of plague was likely by human ectoparasites, not rats, and deconstruct a durable, broadly protective protein nanoparticle influenza virus vaccine. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Ectoparasites and plague (PNAS) SIR model for spread of disease (MAA) Protein nanoparticle flu vaccines (Nat Commun) Food washing (USDA) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 170 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv  
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55 min
January 23, 2018
169: Breatharian Bacteria
The cast of TWiM reveals how uropathogenic E. coli use a copper-binding protein to treat copper as a nutrient or a toxin, and Antarctic soil bacteria that survive on trace atmospheric gases. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Copper import in E. coli (Nat Chem Biol) Conversion of OD to cells/ml for E. coli Nutritional immunity with Jennifer Bomberger (TWiM#141) Microbes live on atmospheric trace gases in Antarctic soil (Nature) Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem (SciHub) Hypolith (Wikipedia) Breatharians (Broadly) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 169Letters read on TWiM 169 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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62 min
January 5, 2018
TWiM #168: The lesser of two weevils
Dickson joins the TWiM team to discuss the nasal microbiota of dairy farmers, and attenuation of bacterial virulence by quorum sensing in the maize weevil. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson. Guest: Dickson Despommier Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode: Nasal microbiota of dairy farmers (PLoS One) Measuring species richness, diversity, similarity (pdf one, pdf two) Quorum sensing attenuates virulence (Cell Host Micr)   Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv    
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76 min
December 22, 2017
TWiM #167: I have one word for you: Flink
How pandemic influenza viruses suppress immunogenic cell death, and 3D printing of bacteria into functional materials.
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52 min
December 7, 2017
TWiM #166: Dark fermentation
Vincent and Elio discuss the reason for poor efficacy of one of the influenza virus vaccines, and using a hyperthermophilic anaerobe to produce hydrogen from fruit and vegetable wastes in seawater. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the ASM Podcast app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Glycosylation site on influenza H3N2 viruses (PNAS) Biohydrogen production by Thermotoga (Waste Man) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 166 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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51 min
November 30, 2017
TWiM #165: Pumping Copper
The TWiM team discusses the use of copper on exercise weights to reduce bacterial burden, and the mechanism of antigenic variation by which a fungus that causes severe pneumonia escapes the immune system. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson Links for this episode: Reducing bacteria on exercise weights with copper (Am J Inf Contr) Antigenic variation in Pneumocystis jirovecii (mBio) Letters read on TWiM 165
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63 min
November 16, 2017
TWiM #164: Indiana Quorum
From Indiana University, Vincent speaks with Ankur, Julia, and Xindan about their careers and their work on horizontal gene transfer, quorum sensing, and chromosome organization in bacteria. Guests: Ankur Dalia, Julia Van Kessel, and Xindan Wang Watch the video version! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ifGCe-qfnA0 Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode: Dalia laboratory Van Kessel laboratory Wang laboratory Indiana U Dept of Biology Vibrio DNA uptake and chitin (Environ Micro) Activation of quorum-sensing genes (Mol Micro) Structural maintenance of chromosome complexes (Science)
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59 min
November 2, 2017
TWiM #163: Saliva and sptR/S
This episode is all about saliva: how certain bacteria survive in it, and how swallowing saliva might cause intestinal inflammation. Links for this episode: Genes for the Streptococcus pyogenes fitness in human saliva (mSphere) Swallowed bacteria drive colonic inflammation (Science) Intestinal inflammation induced by oral bacteria (Science) Human oral microbiome (J Bact) T cell subsets (Nat Rev Imm) Image credit
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66 min
October 13, 2017
TWiM #162: Intracellular bacteria with flagella
The TWiM hosts and associated microbiomes review a fungus destroying salamanders in Europe, and genes for flagella in intracellular bacteria. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Fungus killing fire salamanders (Nature) Chlamydia with flagella (ISME J) Flagellar movement in rickettsia (PLoS One) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 162 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv This episode is brought to you by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Part of the U.S. Department of Defense, the Agency’s Chemical and Biological Technologies Department hosts the 2017 Chemical and Biological Defense Science & Technology Conference to exchange information on the latest and most dynamic developments for countering chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Find out more at http://www.cbdstconference.com  
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52 min
September 21, 2017
TWiM #161: Eros, a bacterial aphrodisiac
From the TWiM team, a discussion of Hurricane Harvey microbiology, and a bacterial enzyme that induces eukaryotic mating. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Tainted Houston floodwaters (NYTimes) Peter Hotez on TWiP 29 FAQ: Microbiology of Built Environments, American Academy of Microbiology Microbiomes of the Built Environment:  A Research Agenda for Indoor Microbiology, Human Health, and Buildings, The National Academies of Sciences Eukaryotic mating induced by bacterial enzyme (Cell) Image credit: Arielle Woznica Nicole King on TWiEVO 11 Letters read on TWiM 161 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv This episode is brought to you by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Part of the U.S. Department of Defense, the Agency’s Chemical and Biological Technologies Department hosts the 2017 Chemical and Biological Defense Science & Technology Conference to exchange information on the latest and most dynamic developments for countering chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Find out more at http://www.cbdstconference.com
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55 min
September 8, 2017
TWiM #160: On the road to virus
The TWiM team provides an update on Zika virus, and reveals a plasmid on the road to becoming a virus.
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67 min
August 31, 2017
TWiM #159: Immunophage synergy
The TWiM team pays a tribute to Chris Condayan, and investigates the synergy between virus and the innate immune system for clearing bacterial pneumonia by phage therapy.
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60 min
August 10, 2017
TWiM #158: The bottom line
prokaryotic viral DNA in mammalian brain, and how diarrhea is beneficial, by clearing enteric pathogens.
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65 min
July 27, 2017
TWiM #157: Back to the ancestor
The TWiMbionts explore the role of bacteria in the genesis of moonmilk, and how ancient host proteins can be used to engineer resistance to virus infection.
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56 min
July 13, 2017
TWiM #156: Gifted microbes and defensive symbiosis
The TWiM team explains the use of microbial genome mining to identify new drugs, and how a bacterial symbiont protects flies against parasitoid wasps. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Molecular beacons identify gifted microbes (J Antibiot) Defensive symbiosis (PLoS Path) Letters read on TWiM 156 Image Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv  
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57 min
June 29, 2017
TWiM #155: Living in the stomach of a cell
Michele updates the TWiMers on Legionella in the Flint water supply, and Elio informs us about how horizontally acquired biosynthesis genes boost the physiology of Coxiella burnetii. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Legionella in Flint water (The Scientist) Q fever with Robert Heinzen (TWiM Special) Horizontally acquired genes boost C. burnetii (Front Cell Inf Micro) Image credit Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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57 min
June 14, 2017
TWiM #154: Rigor, lotteries, and moonshots
At Microbe 2017 in New Orleans, the TWiM team speaks with Arturo Casadevall about his thoughts on the pathogenic potential of a microbe, rigorous science, funding by lottery, and moonshot science. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Watch the video version recorded live at ASM Microbe 2017! Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Pathogenic potential of a microbe (mSphere) Rigorous science (mBio) Funding by lottery (mBio) Moonshot science (mBio) Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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74 min
May 30, 2017
TWiM #153: Covert pathogenesis
The TWiM team ventures into preprint space with an analysis of type VI secretion across human gut microbiomes, and provide insight into urinary tract infection: how bladder exposure to a member of the vaginal microbiota triggers E. coli egress from latent reservoirs. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode ASM Microbe 2017 TWiM Live from ASM Microbe 2017 Landscape of type VI secretion (BioRxiv) Type VI secretion structure (jpg) Activation of dormant E. coli in urinary tract infection (PLoS Path) Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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57 min
May 19, 2017
TWiM #152: Wooden steps
The TWiMmers get cozy with symbionts: the bacteria that allow a giant shipworm to oxidize sulfur, and algae that live within salamander cells. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode ASM Microbe 2017 Chemoautotrophic symbiosis in giant shipworm (PNAS) There’s gold in them hills (TWiM 97) Vertebrate-algal symbiosis (eLife) Letters read on TWiM 152 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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51 min
May 4, 2017
TWiM #151: Bat and moth antimicrobials
The TWiMsters discuss potential new sources of antimicrobial compounds from unusual places: the skin of bats and the intestines of moths. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode JMBE science communication issue Bat sources of novel antifungals (AEM) White nose syndrome in US (jpg) White nose syndrome fact sheet (pdf) Symbiont-derived antimicrobials (Cell Chem Cell) Bacteriocins (Wikipedia) Letters read on TWiM 151 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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59 min
April 20, 2017
TWiM #150: Microbiology is where it’s at
In recognition of National Medical Laboratory Professionals Week, Robin Patel speaks with the TWiM team about directing a clinical bacteriology laboratory, and how an observation made by a laboratory technologist lead to the finding that Ureaplasma species can cause a system metabolic disturbance, hyperammonemia. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson Guest: Robin Patel Links for this episode: National Laboratory Professionals Week Mayo Clinic Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Mayo Clinic Murine model of Ureaplasma hyperammonemia (Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis) Ureaplasma and human hyperammonemia (Sci Transl Med) Become a patron of TWiM.  
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61 min
April 6, 2017
TWiM #149: You’re going to learn R
The TWiM team speaks with Pat Schloss about assigning sequence data to operational taxonomic units, and his experience with mSphere Direct, a new way of submitting papers for publication. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson. Special guest: Pat Schloss Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Schloss Laboratory OptiClust (mSphere) This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free – WITH FREE SHIPPING – by going to blueapron.com/twim Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv
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62 min
March 23, 2017
TWiM #148: Neanderthal Dentistry
Vincent, Elio, and Michael reveal what Neanderthals ate from analysis of DNA in their teeth, and new CRISPR-Cas systems found in the genomes of uncultured microbes. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, and Michael Schmidt. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Ancient DNA in Neanderthal teeth (Nature) New CRISPRs from metagenomics (Nature) CRISPR/cas explained (Wikipedia) ASM Conference for Undergraduate Educators Image credit Letters read on TWiM 148 This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free – WITH FREE SHIPPING – by going to blueapron.com/twim Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv 
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55 min
March 10, 2017
TWiM #147: The Public Goods Dilemma
The TWiM hosts reveal why phosphorus is essential for fungal brain disease, and how bacteria kill local competitors to favor the evolution of public goods cooperation. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter. Links for this episode Phosphate needed for Cryptococcus brain disease (mSphere) Type VI killing drives phase separation (Nat Rep) Type VI secretion review (Phil Trans Roy Soc) Microbial cooperation and conflict (TedX) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 147 Become a patron of TWiM. This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free with your first purchase – WITH FREE SHIPPING – by going to blueapron.com/twim Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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66 min
February 23, 2017
TWiM #146: Viral arbitrium
Vincent, Elio and Michael discuss the finding of a prion in bacteria, and how communication between bacteria guides the decision between lysis and lysogeny. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode ASM 2017 Election is Open! VOTE HERE Prions in bacteria (Science) Communication guides lysis-lysogeny decisions (Nature) This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free – WITH FREE SHIPPING – by going to blueapron.com/twim Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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53 min
February 16, 2017
TWiM Special: Q fever with Robert Heinzen
Host: Vincent Racaniello Guest: Robert Heinzen At the Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, Vincent speaks with Robert Heinzen about the work of his laboratory on Q fever and its causative microbe, Coxiella burneti.   Become a Patron of TWiM! Links for this episode Rocky Mountain Laboratory Heinzen Laboratory Small town, big science (TWiM 140) Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments to twim@microbe.tv
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64 min
February 9, 2017
TWiM #145: Anything but academic
Vincent meets up with Catharine Bosio, Michael Merchlinsky, and Shilpa Gadwal at the ASM Biothreats meeting to talk about careers for scientists outside of the ivory tower. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode: ASM Biothreats 2017 Rocky Mountain Laboratory BARDA  
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62 min
January 26, 2017
TWiM #144: Did eukaryotes invent anything?
The TWiMers discuss how changes in domestic laundering affect the removal of microorganisms, and assembly of a nucleus-like structure during viral replication in bacteria. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Laundry hygiene (J Appl Micro) Nucleus-like structure in infected bacteria (Science) Video of nucleus assembly in bacteria (YouTube) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 144 This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free – WITH FREE SHIPPING – by going to blueapron.com/twim Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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66 min
January 12, 2017
TWiM #143: E-scaffolds and receptor transfer
Vincent, Michael, and Michele explain the use of an electrochemical gradient to eliminate bacterial biofilms, and how phage susceptibility can be transferred by exchange of receptor proteins. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson. Right click to download TWiM#143 (32 MB .mp3, 66 minutes). Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a patron of TWiM. Links for this episode Electrochemical scaffold to eliminate persistent biofilms (npj Biofilms Microbiomes) Experimental setup for electrochemical treatment of biofilm (pdf, from article) Acquisition of phage sensitivity by transfer of cell receptors (Cell) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 143 This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv 
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65 min
December 29, 2016
TWiM #142: A membrane-thickness caliper
Vincent, Elio and Michele wind up a year of microbial podcasts with a story about the lack of resistance to a crop antifungal compound, and how a bacterium uses a molecular caliper to measure membrane thickness. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Phenylpyrroles: Nearly no resistance (Front Micro) Membrane-thickness caliper (J Bact) Letters read on TWiM 142 This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or recorded audio) to twim@microbe.tv 
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58 min
December 15, 2016
TWiM #141: Nutritional immunity and polymicrobial infections
Jennifer joins Vincent, Elio, and Michael to talk about the work of her laboratory on how a respiratory virus enhances bacterial growth by dysregulating nutritional immunity. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, and Michael Schmidt. Guest: Jennifer Bomberger Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Virus dysregulation of nutritional immunity (PNAS) Podcast article mentioned by Michael Compromised defenses (PLoS Path) This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. This show is sponsored by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. This Holiday season give someone a Drobo to keep all their files and memories safe forever Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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65 min
December 1, 2016
TWiM 140: Small town, big science
Host: Vincent Racaniello Guests: Marie Antonioli, Bryan Hansen, Forrest Jessop, Kyle Shifflet and Jim Striebel At the Hamilton, Montana Performing Arts Center, Vincent speaks with three local high school graduates and two high school teachers about how Rocky Mountain Laboratories influenced school science programs and opened up career opportunities.   Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Become a Patron of TWiM! Links for this episode Poster of this event (jpg) Rocky Mountain Laboratories Hamilton, MT high school Video of this episode on YouTube This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments to twim@microbe.tv
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80 min
November 18, 2016
TWiM #139: Frackibacter and sticky fingers
The TWiM team discusses microbial DNA found on ATM machines in New York City, and how hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, alters microbial ecosystems deep in the Earth. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Microbial DNA on ATM machines in NYC (mSphere) NYC OpenData Altering deep microbial ecosystems by fracking (Nat Micro) Marcellus Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory Chemicals used for fracking (FracFocus) Marcellus and Utica shale formation map Consequences of fracking (GasBuddy) Image credit This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. Register today for the 2017 ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Online Course at bit.ly/swpoc17 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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71 min
November 3, 2016
TWiM #138: Learning to love uranium and the A-baum
The TWiM team brings you a bacterium from a Colorado field site that grows on uranium, and copper resistance in the emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Hosts:  Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Kavli Microbiome Ideas Challenge Uranium-respiring bacterium from a field site (PLoS One) Acid mine drainage (Wikipedia) Copper resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii ASM Grant Writing Online Course TWiM #132: Bacteria learn long division Image credit This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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62 min
October 20, 2016
TWiM #137: The battle for oxygen
Highlights of the Recent Advances in Microbial Control meeting in San Diego, and expansion of a gut pathogen by virulence factors that stimulate aerobic respiration. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Fred Neidhardt obituary Recent Advances in Microbial Control Science hero Bill Fenical Virulence factors and aerobic respiration (Science) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 137 This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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68 min
October 7, 2016
TWiM #136: Diderms and then monoderms
Them TWiM team discusses the importance of neutrophils in microbial infections, and evidence that ancient bacteria had two cell walls. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Conquering neutrophils (PLoS Path) Ancestral outer membrane in firmicutes (eLife ) Were gram positive rods the first bacteria? (Cell) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 136 This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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48 min
September 23, 2016
TWiM #135: Unruly individuals and their unruly friends
Links for this episode Dysbiosis of microbiome in critical illness (mSphere) Consequences of sewage spill into aquatic environment (App Env Mic) EPA recreational water guidelines (pdf) VRE following sewage spill (Outbreak Radio) FAQ: Human microbiome American gut project British gut project Rob Knight on human microbiome (TED) Rob Knight on TWiM Image credit TWiM 135 Letters This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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66 min
September 8, 2016
TWiM #134: Lipids that live forever
Design of a synchronously lysing bacterium for delivery of anti-tumor molecules in mice, and hopanoids, the lipids that live forever, brought to you by the four Microbies of TWiM. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Bacterial lysis for in vivo delivery (Nature) Coley’s toxins (Iowa Orthop J) Hopanoids, stress tolerance, and nutrient storage (Geobiol) Lipids that last forever (STC) Fattening up microbial geological biomarkers (STC) Money spreads infection (Fut Micro) This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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64 min
August 20, 2016
TWiM #133: Right under our noses
Insight into the biology of rhinovirus C from cryo-electron microscopy, and a novel antibiotic from a commensal bacterium that grows in the human nose, from the doctors of TWiM. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, and Michael Schmidt. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Cryo-EM of viruses and vaccine design (PNAS) Atomic structure of rhinovirus C (PNAS) Opening windows into the cell (STC) Human commensals produce novel antibiotic (Nature) The nose knows (Nature) Letters read on TWiM 133 Image in audio player: Molecular surface of a Human rhinovirus, showing protein spikes. By: Wiki user: Robin S This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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61 min
August 5, 2016
TWiM #132: Bacteria learn long division
Vincent, Elio, and Michele present cell division by longitudinal scission in an insect symbiont, and thermally activated charge transport in microbial nanowires. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Cell division by longitudinal scission (mBio) Bacterium learns long division (STC) Charge transport by microbial nanowires (Sci Rep) Mechanism of nanowire conductance (Nat Comm) Using nature to grow batteries (TED) SEM of Y-shaped S. poulsonii (above) - Image credit Extracellular electron transport (below) - image credit This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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57 min
July 20, 2016
TWiM 131: Mice behaving badly
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Michael Schmidt Michael and Vincent present Spotlights, brief reviews of classic papers in the Journal of Bacteriology, and explain how a single bacterial species can reverse autism-like social deficits in the offspring of obese mice.   Links for this episode Protein secretion in E. coli (J Bacteriol) Plague pathogenesis (J Bacteriol) Reversal of diet induced social defects (Cell) Letters read on TWiM 131 This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments to twim@microbe.tv
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82 min
June 23, 2016
TWiM #130: Interkingdom interactions at ASM Microbe
Filmed live in Boston, MA at Microbe 2016, David S. Schneider and Vanessa Sperandio talk about their work on regulation of bacterial virulence in the gut by bacterial adrenergic sensors, and the physiological mechanisms that make us ill and that help us recover.
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77 min
June 7, 2016
TWiM #129: Dried and wrinkled, smooth and mucoid
The arrival in the US of plasmid-mediated resistance to colistin antibiotics, a last line of defense against many gram-negative bacilli, and a quorum sensing system in a eukaryote are topics of this episode hosted by Vincent, Michael, and Michele. Image: Etest used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of an antibiotic for a particular bacterium. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson.  Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode E. coli with mcr-1 on a plasmid in the US (AAC) Emergence of plasmid mediated colistin resistance in China (The Lancet) Major breach in last line of defense (The Lancet) Resistance plasmid families in Enterobacteriaceae (AAC) EUCAST MIC breakpoints (ClinCalc) Role of ASM in microbial resistance one, two (bLogphase) Quorum sensing in fungi (Cell Host Microbe) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 129 This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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70 min
May 21, 2016
TWiM #128: A moonlighting phage protein
A eukaryote without a mitochondrion, and using a phage enzyme to eliminate intracellular bacteria are two topics discussed by the TWiMers on this episode. Image (right): An entry in the ASM Agar Art Contest which bears an uncanny resemblance to one of the TWiM hosts. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Copper and Michael Schmidt in the news (The Scientist) Fair Pay for Postdocs (Huff Post) National Microbiome Initiative (White House) The shrinking mitochondrion (The Scientist) Eukaryote without a mitochondrion (Curr Biol) Why have organelles retained genomes? (Cell Sys) Bugs as drugs (Amer Acad Micro) Phage encoded lysin eliminates intracellular bacteria (eLife) This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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77 min
May 5, 2016
TWiM #127: Subway Snowblowers and Men in Black
The TWiM team explores microbes in snowblower vents on the ocean floor, and cleavage of antibody molecules by a Mycoplasma protease. Image (right): Photograph of the ‘Subway’ snowblower vent on the sea floor at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Visible are white ‘snow’ in the vent and orange floc on the seafloor. Credit: Canadian Scientific Submersible Facility and the University of Washington Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Happy Birthday, Elio! In the Company of Microbes Snowblower vents (Front Micro) Deep-sea snowblower vents video (YouTube) Visions 11 cruise photos Mycoplasma capture and cleave IgG (PNAS) Snowblower image (large) Letters read on TWiM 127 This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASM Grant Writing Course Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 
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54 min
April 22, 2016
TWiM #126: I’m not scared of zebrafish and mice and bears (oh my!)
The microbiome of hibernating bears, and zebrafish as a model for bacterial sepsis feature in this animal-centric episode of TWiM hosted by Vincent, Michael, and Michele. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Microbiome of hibernating brown bear and energy metabolism (Cell Rep) Ten animals that hibernate (Cons Inst) Zebrafish model of sepsis (mSphere) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 126 This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASM Microbe 2016 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.  
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67 min
April 7, 2016
TWiM #125: A minimal cell operating system
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt. A deep sequencing study of commercially available probiotics, and design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome are the topics tackled by Vincent, Michael, and Michele on this episode of TWiM. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Culture-independent surveillance of probiotics (mSphere) Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome (Science) J. Craig Venter Institute Image credit Letters read on TWiM 125 This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASM Microbe 2016 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.    
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57 min
March 24, 2016
TWiM #124: Fungal pirates
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt. Vincent, Michael, and Michele reveal how a fungal protease blunts the innate immune response and promotes pathogenicity. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Michele on Flint Legionella outbreak (Detroit News) Fungal mimicry of a mammalian aminopeptidase (Cell Host Micr)   This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASM Microbe 2016 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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63 min
March 9, 2016
TWiM #123: A microbial MAGE
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter. Guest: Harris Wang Harris joins Vincent, Elio, and Michael to describe multiplex automated genome engineering, a method for targeting many modifications in a population of bacterial cells. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode  MAGE - Multiplex automated genome engineering (Nature) Genome-scale promoter engineering (Nat Methods) Manipulating microbial communities in situ (Trends Genet) Engineering human microbiomes (Meth Mol Biol) Genome-scale engineering (Mol Syst Biol) Economic framework of microbial trade (PLoS One) Tardigrade t-shirt Image credit This episode is sponsored by Microbe Magazine Podcast and ASM Microbe 2016 Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.  
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75 min
February 25, 2016
TWiM #122: Mayonii, microRNAs and the microbiome
Vincent, Michele, and Michael reveal the discovery of a new species of the spirochaete that causes Lyme disease, and fecal microRNAs that shape the gut microbiome. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Identification of a novel Borrelia species causing Lyme disease (Lancet Inf Dis) Parasite wonders with Bobbi Pritt (TWiP 75) Reported cases of Lyme disease (CDC) Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease (CDC) Multilocus sequence typing Borrelia MLST database American Academy of Microbiology FAQ Human microbiome Host fecal microRNA shapes gut microbiota (Cell) Image credit C.U.R.E. the game Live Tiny, Die Never - Tardigrade T-shirt This episode is sponsored by Microbe Magazine Podcast and ASM Microbe 2016 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.  
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63 min
February 11, 2016
TWiM #121: A plague of pathogens
Host: Vincent Racaniello Special guests: Rebekah Kading and Wyndham Lathem From the ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research meeting, Vincent speaks with Rebekah and Wyndham about their work on Rift Valley Fever virus and other vector-borne pathogens, and the evolution and pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode  Rift Valley fever virus risk (Emerg Micr Inf) Predicting Rift Valley fever virus transmission (PLoS NTD) Culex in New York City (BioOne) Early emergence of Y. pestis (Nature Comm) Pneumonic plague (Trends Micro) Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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57 min
February 2, 2016
TWiM #120: Snakes in trouble
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Elio Schaechter. Vincent and Elio marvel in the finding that a phage tail-like structure from a marine bacterium stimulates tubeworm metamorphosis, and reveal Ophidiomyces as a cause of snake fungal disease. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode  Tubeworm metamorphosis by phage tail-like structures (Science) Cell enzyme becomes viral capsid protein (virology blog) Snake fungal disease in the laboratory (mBioi) Snake fungal disease in cottonmouths (PLoS Biol) Snake fungal disease (pdf) Image credit This episode is sponsored by ASM Grant Writing Institute Online Webinar and 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.  
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49 min
January 16, 2016
TWiM #119: Power of one
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter. The microbophiles investigate the ratio of bacterial to human cells in our bodies, and how placing solar panels on a bacterium enables it to carry out photosynthesis. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode  Revised estimates of human and bacterial cells in the body (biorxiv) Power of ten (Small Things Considered) Solar-to-chemical production in bacteria (Science) Letters read on TWiM 119 This episode is sponsored by ASM Grant Writing Institute Online Webinar and 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv. Thumbnail image: Cell structure of a gram positive bacterium. This vector image is completely made by Ali Zifan - Own work; used information from Biology 10e Textbook (chapter 4, Pg: 63) by: Peter Raven, Kenneth Mason, Jonathan Losos, Susan Singer · McGraw-Hill Education.  
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63 min
January 1, 2016
TWiM #118: Spore-drops keep fallin’ on my head
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson On the last episode for 2015, Vincent, Elio, and Michele discuss how soil amoeba hunt nematodes in packs, and the role of mushrooms as rainmakers. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode  Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes (Environ Micro) Mushrooms as rainmakers (PLoS One) Mushroom by Nicholas Money In the Company of Mushrooms by Elio Schaechter Image credit Letters read on TWiM 118 This episode is sponsored by ASM Microbe 2016 and ASM Biodefense Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.
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65 min
December 17, 2015
TWiM #117: Finding the comammox
The TWiM team marvels over the finding of a completely nitrifying Nitrospira, and horizontal gene transfer from Wolbachia into an animal genome. Links for this episode: Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria (Nature one, two) Enigmatic comammox (PhysOrg) Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Ann Rev Micro) Tardigrade controversy (SciAlert) Horizontal gene transfer from Wolbachia to grasshopper (PeerJ) Thumbnail Image (nitrogen cycle) credit Letters read on TWiM 117 This episode is sponsored by ASM Microbe 2016 and ASM Biodefense Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.
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70 min
December 2, 2015
TWiM #116: Chewates and coconuts
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson The TWiMeriti reveal a Brazilian social bee that must cultivate a fungus to survive, and diet-mediated reduction in gut colonization by Candida albicans. Links for this episode  Bee cultivates fungus to survive (Curr Biol) Diet reduces C. albicans gut colonization (mSphere) mSphere, a new open-access ASM journal Image credit Letters read on TWiM 116 This episode is sponsored by ASM Biodefense and the 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium. Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.
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60 min
November 20, 2015
TWiM #115: Profiling the Poglianos
Vincent visits the laboratories of Kit and Joseph Pogliano on the campus of the University of California, San Diego, where he learns about their work on the bacterial cytoskeleton, sporulation, and the effects of antibiotics on bacterial cells. Visit microbeworld.org/twim for complete shownotes including the special video version of this episode. Thanks for listening and watching!
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56 min
November 6, 2015
TWiM #114: Milestones in Blue
Vincent, Elio, and Michele meet with Harry Mobley, Mary O’Riordan, and Vince Young at the University of Michigan, during the designation of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology as a Milestones in Microbiology site. They discuss how the laboratory has advanced the science and teaching of microbiology, and discuss faculty work on uropathogenic E. coli, induction of stress by bacterial infection, and the gut microbiome. Visit microbeworld.org/twim for more including the special video version of this episode.
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71 min
October 22, 2015
TWiM #113: Waves of Change
Vincent meets up with Romney and Duncan at the 79th annual meeting of the Southern California branch of the American Society for Microbiology, where they talk about emerging technologies for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and next generation sequencing and advanced molecular diagnostics. Visit microbeworld.org/twim to watch the video version and for complete shownotes including links mentioned.
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53 min
September 26, 2015
TWiM #112: Mushroom pickers and mushroom kickers
The TWiM team wonders why definitions in biology often change, and discuss how the small molecule terrein is important for the growth of a soil fungus. Image: Lesion formation on banana surfaces infected with Aspergillus terreus. Source Links mentioned:   ASM Undergraduate Research Capstone Program ASM Undergraduate Fellowship Program Regulation of terrein production in Aspergillus terreus Visit microbeworld.org/twim for more.  
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60 min
September 10, 2015
TWiM #111: Ancientbiotics and modernbiotics
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter. The TWiMitos discuss the reconstruction of a 1,000-year-old antimicrobial remedy, and using gallium as an antimicrobial in the battle for iron. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode  1,000 year old antimicrobial (mBio) Siderophore quenching with gallium (Evol Med Pub Health) Evolutionary dynamics of public goods (J Evol Biol) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 111 Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission. Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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59 min
August 19, 2015
TWiM #110: Exploring unseen life with unpronounceable words
The TWiM team focuses on the gut microbiome, from a single member, Akkermansia muciniphila, to the effect of antibiotics on its composition and colonization resistance against C. difficile. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode  Agar art contest Akkermansia muciniphilia and obesity (Gut) A. muciniphilia genome (Biol Direct) Alterations of gut microbiota and C. difficile colonization (mBio) Science Delivered Girls Who Code F.E.M.M.E.S. Association for Women in Science UMich Host-Microbiome Initiative UMich anaerobic chamber room (png)
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71 min
August 6, 2015
TWiM #109: Precision killing
The TWiM cohort discusses the use of antimicrobial peptides to target specific bacteria in the microbiome, and how the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia selectively kills male hosts.   Links for this episode: Antimicrobial peptides to modulate microbial ecology (PNAS) Targeting specific bacteria in the oral microbiome (Trends Micro) How Wolbachiakills male hosts (PLoS Biol) Wolbachia phage on TWiV 332   Image: Transmission electron micrograph of Wolbachia within an insect cell. By: Scott O'Neill - Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterium Wolbachia. PLoS Biol 2/3/2004: e76.
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68 min
July 23, 2015
TWiM #108: Vaccine in the time of cholera
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.   The professors of TWiM discuss a University of Wisconsin plan for rescuing biomedical research in the US, and results of a clinical trial in Bangladesh of an oral cholera vaccine. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Rescuing biomedical research (eLife) Rethinking graduate and postdoc education (iBiology) Oral cholera vaccine trial (Lancet)  Inexpensive cholera vaccine (NYTimes) Image credit Letters read on TWiM 108
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72 min
July 9, 2015
TWiM #107: The battle in your bladder
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Michael Schmidt. Vincent and Michael discuss the highly diverse microbiome of uncontacted Amerindians, and how the composition of human urine plays a role in the battle for iron. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Microbiome of uncontacted Amerindians (Sci Adv) Urinary composition controls siderocalin activity (J Biol Chem) Urine acidity and UTI susceptibility (Infect Cont Today) Image (from pdb file 3cmp) shows siderocalin (magenta) complexed with iron (orange) and enterobactin (sticks) Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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91 min
June 24, 2015
TWiM #106: Lawn mower disease
  Vincent and Michael speak with Katy Bosio about her research on pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccines against Franciscella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia.
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76 min
June 5, 2015
TWiM #105: Real bugs with legs
The TWiM team reviews the microbiological safety of herbs in the United Kingdom, and how a peptide from the milkweek bug binds the ribosome and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis.   Links for this episode:   Microbes in whole-leaf herbs (J Appl Micro) Antimicrobial peptide blocks ribosome (Nat Struct Mol Biol) Bacterial protein synthesis (Micro Mol Biol Rev) Antimicrobial peptides (Nature) The battle for tryptophan (Front Cell Infect Micro) Image credit
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57 min
May 21, 2015
TWiM #104: Feed me polyamines, biofilm
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.   The TWiM team discusses how measles vaccination protects against other infectious diseases, and links between bacterial biofilms and colon cancer. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Measles vaccination prevents all-cause infectious disease (Science) Master of contagion (The Loom) Video: Measles incidence to immunomodulation (Science) FAQ: Adult vaccines Metabolism links biofilms and colon cancer (Cell Metab) Scripps Center for Metabolomics Scripps metabolite database Image credit Sponsors for this episode: SciMedSolutions, ICAAC-ICC Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.  
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63 min
May 8, 2015
TWiM #103: The battle for iron
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.  The TWiM team is amazed by the ocelloid, and an evolutionary battle for iron between mammalian transferrin and bacterial transferrin-binding protein. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode A unicellular camera-type eye structure (PLoS One) Escape from iron piracy (Science) Iron in infection and immunity (Cell Host Micr) Nutritional immunity (Nat Rev Micro) Evolutionary Path (Matthew Barber) Image credit: Janet Iwasa Sponsors for this episode: SciMedSolutions, ICAAC-ICC Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.  
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65 min
April 24, 2015
TWiM #102: Happiness is the spore-formers in your gut
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.  The TWiM team discusses evidence that serotonin synthesis is regulated by spore-forming members of the gut microbiota. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode When antibiotic resistance in vitro falls short (STC) Gut microbiota control serotonin in mice (Cell) Serotonin biosynthesis (Wikipedia) Microbial endocrinology (STC) Image credit Sponsors for this episode: SciMedSolutions, Jmbe.asm.org, ICAAC-ICC Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim. Image: Serotonin temporary tattoo by flickr user: ChezShawna  
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57 min
April 1, 2015
TWiM #101: The MRSA in your home
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.  The TWiMers discuss how aroma helps disperse yeast cells on insect vectors, and evidence that MRSA is transmitted within households. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Aroma promotes yeast dispersal on flies (Cell Rep) MRSA is transmitted within households (mBio) FAQ: The threat of MRSA (AAM) Image credit Letters read  on TWiM 101 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.  
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74 min
March 18, 2015
TWiM #100: Omnis cellula e cellula
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Jo Handelsman.   The TWiM team celebrates 100 episodes with a Talmudic question, and discussion of how a single mutation alters bacterial host tropism. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode A single mutation alters bacterial tropism (Nat Gen) Talmudic question #104 (Small Things Considered) Principles of Microbial Diversity (ASM Press) Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education Letters read on TWiM 100 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim. Image: Yellow colonies of S. aureus on a blood agar plate, note regions of clearing around colonies caused by lysis of red cells in the agar By: HansN. on wikimedia. From the study (Nat Gen) "...only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits." 
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50 min
March 4, 2015
TWiM #99: Careers in Biodefense
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello Guests: Maria Julia Marinissen, Edward H. You, and David R. Howell Vincent meets up with Maria, Edward, and David at the ASM Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research meeting to talk about alternative careers for scientists. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.   A video version of this episode is available at microbeworld.org/twim  Links for this episode: ASM Biodefense meeting FBI Biological Countermeasures Unit Office of Policy and Planning Division of Medical Countermeasures Strategy and Requirements Division of International Health Security Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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61 min
February 19, 2015
TWiM #98: Bacteria and eukaryotes get horizontal
  The TWiM crew ponders the question of how a bacterium finds its middle when dividing, then divulge the transfer of interbacterial antagonism genes to eukaryotes, where they may function in innate defense.   Links for this episode:   Size independent symmetric division (Nat Commun) How does a bacterium find its middle? (Nat Struct Biol) Genes transferred from bacteria augment eukaryotic defenses (Cell) Antibacterial gene transfer (eLife) Letters read on TWiM #98 on TWiM 98 Visit microbeworld.org/twim for complete shownotes and more.
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58 min
February 4, 2015
TWiM #97: There’s gold in them hills
The TWiM team reveal how bacteria in a shipworm’s gills help digest wood in the gut, and an approach that identifies a new antibiotic from the soil.   Links for this episode:   Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy (PNAS) Killing bacteria without resistance (Nature) An irresistable newcomer (Nature) Peptidoglycan synthesis animation 10 x 20 initiative (IDSA) Longitude Prize Visit microbeworld.org/twim for more.
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74 min
January 21, 2015
TWiM #96: A lean, mean sequencing machine
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello. Special guest: Rob Knight Vincent meets up with Rob Knight to talk about the technology that has fueled his drive to sequence the Earth and its inhabitants. Check out the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Microbes en masse (Nature) Obesity alters gut microbial ecology (PNAS) Sharing microbiome with dogs (eLife) Earth microbiome project (BMC Biology) Stability of gut micobiota (Science) Gut microbes and the brain (J Neurosci) Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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54 min
January 9, 2015
TWiM #95: A microbe lover in San Diego
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello. Special guest: Stanley Maloy Vincent meets up with Stan Maloy on the campus of San Diego State University to talk about his career in microbiology and his work as Dean of Science. Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode:  Maloy lab Salmonella.org Microbial genetics course page Typhoid Mary Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.  
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66 min
December 25, 2014
TWiM #94: Nitrochondria
Vincent, Elio, and Michael discuss a symbiosis between a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and a single-celled eukaryotic alga.   Links for this episode:   Unicellular cyanobacterium and alga symbiosis (Science) Diversity of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium and its host (Environ Micro) Talmudic Question #4 (answer) Talmudic Question #2 Coccolithophore (Wikipedia) Visit microbeworld.org/twim to view the complete shownotes and entire back catalog.
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66 min
December 11, 2014
TWiM #93: Worming in on bacteria
  Vincent, Elio, and Michael reveal that a soil-dwelling nematode can recognize and respond to a bacterial quorum sensing molecule through a sensory neuron.
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56 min
November 27, 2014
TWiM #92: Flying biofilms
Vincent, Elio, Michael and Michele discuss the possible eradication of wild poliovirus type 3, and how microsporidian parasites prevent locust swarming behavior.  
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68 min
November 14, 2014
TWiM #91: Rats, viruses, and bacteria
Vincent, Elio, and Michele review a study of the viruses and bacteria in commensal rats in New York City. Visit microbeworld.org/twim for complete show notes. Thanks for listening!
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58 min
October 29, 2014
TWiM #90: Think globally, act locally
  Vincent meets up with Laurene and David at the Annual Meeting of the Southern California Branch of the American Society for Microbiology, where they discuss how the Los Angeles County Department of Health is preparing for an outbreak of Ebola virus infection, and Cepheid’s game-changing, modular PCR system for the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
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62 min
October 15, 2014
TWiM #89: Microbial handoffs
Vincent, Michele, and Michael discuss how a gene from bacteria protects a tick from plant cyanide poisoning, and enhanced transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae by influenza virus co-infection in mice.
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73 min
October 1, 2014
TWiM #88: A century of excellence in microbiology
Michele speaks with members of the Department of Bacteriology at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, on the occasion of its designation as a Milestones in Microbiology site, where they discuss how the department has advanced the science and teaching of microbiology.  
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50 min
September 17, 2014
TWiM #87: Avogadro, archaeal fossils, and ICAAC
Vincent, Elio, and Michael explore the fossilization of archaeal lipids, and highlight the recent ICAAC in Washington, D.C.  
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74 min
September 3, 2014
TWiM #86: Blurring the line between organelle and endosymbiont
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.  Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michele consider whether our eating behavior is manipulated by gastrointestinal microbiota, and an aphid gene of bacterial origin whose gene product encodes a protein that is transported to an obligate endosymbiont.  Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode National Biosafety Stewardship month Aphid gene of bacterial origin (Curr Biol) Eroding symbiont/organelle distinction (Curr Biol) Is our eating manipulated by our microbiota? (Bioessays) Road to microbial endocrinology (STC) Microbial endocrinology (STC) Letters read on TWiM 86 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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72 min
August 21, 2014
TWiM #85: Oscillation in the ocean and a Verona integron
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michele discuss the diel transcriptional rythmns of bacterioplankton communities in the ocean, and extensively drug resistant Pseudomonas in Ohio.
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77 min
August 11, 2014
TWiM #84: Microbiology Down Under
In Melbourne, Australia Vincent speaks with David, Melanie, and Adam about their work on group A Streptococcus, Helicobacter pylori, and infections of Koalas with Chlamydia.
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68 min
July 24, 2014
TWiM #83: Illuminating tuberculosis and cryptococcosis
Vincent, Michael, Elio and Michele review a new fluorogenic diagnostic test for tuberculosis bacteria, and the role of a metalloprotease in helping a fungus invade the central nervous system.   
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79 min
July 10, 2014
TWiM #82: Betrayal and compromise
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson. Vincent, Michael, Elio and Michele discuss how an endosymbiont betrays its aphid host to alert plant defenses, and a new immunosuppressive cell that allows infection of neonates.   Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app. Links for this episode Endosymbiont protein betrays aphid (PNAS) Plant immune system (Nature) Plant defenses against pathogens (Am Phyt Soc) New neonatal defense against infection (Nature) Marty Blaser and Bill Maher (YouTube) Two days from any village (YouTube) Letters read on TWiM 82 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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71 min
June 28, 2014
TWiM #81: Cold iron is the master of them all
Vincent, Michael, and Michele discuss how iron might disperse bacterial biofilms in carotid arterial plaques, and controlling Salmonella by modulating host iron homeostasis. 
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71 min
June 11, 2014
TWiM #80: Hurling fleas and designer chromosomes
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson.  Vincent, Elio, and Michele discuss how to synthesize a designer yeast chromosome, and deciphering the genetic changes path that allowed Yersinia pestis to be transmitted by fleas. Links for this episode: Total synthesis of a yeast chromosome (Science) Evolution of Y. pestis to flea-borne transmission (Cell Host Micr) Proventricular valve (Wikipedia) Image: flea with Y. pestis proventricular mass Letters read on TWiM 80 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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54 min
May 29, 2014
TWiM #79: A community of microbiologists
Vincent, Michael, and Michele review highlights of the 2014 General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology in Boston, MA.
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71 min
May 15, 2014
TWiM #78: A bacterium grows in Brooklyn
Vincent, Elio, and Michael consider a fungal pathogen of insects that acquired a gene from its host that facilitates infection, and presence of gram-negative nosocomial pathogens on community surfaces near hospitals in Brooklyn. 
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63 min
May 1, 2014
TWiM #77: Zombie plants and no pain, no gain
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michelle review how a pathogen promotes plant attractiveness to insect vectors, and activation of sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation by bacterial infection.  
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68 min
April 11, 2014
TWiM #76: Genetic biopixels and a pathogenic sweet tooth
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michelle discuss the use of bacteria to build a genetic sensor for heavy metals, and how host sugars help enteric pathogens to expand after antibiotic treatment.  
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67 min
March 27, 2014
TWiM #75: Pellicles on pickle jars
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michelle discuss a symbiosis between a bacterium and fungus that increases the virulence of oral biofilms, and the assembly of amyloid fibers, which are needed for biofilm formation.  
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81 min
March 12, 2014
TWiM #74: It came from the Siberian permafrost
Vincent, Elio, and Michael discuss a huge 30,000 year old virus recovered from Siberia, and nested symbiosis facilitated by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to insect.
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70 min
February 27, 2014
TWiM #73: Eyeing root nodule development
Vincent, Michael, and Michele discuss how soil-dwelling bacteria induce the formation of root nodules on legumes via a protein called CYCLOPS. 
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79 min
February 13, 2014
TWiM #72: The benefits of virulence
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michele review how microbial virulence can be increased as a consequence of community surveillance and adaptation to macrophages.  
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74 min
January 22, 2014
TWiM #71: Colon cancer’s little shop of horrors
Vincent, Michael, and Michele explain how the gut microbiome modulates colon tumorigenesis, and regulation of intestinal macrophage function by the microbial metabolite butyrate.
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78 min
December 18, 2013
TWiM #70: A paroxysmal cough
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michele discuss evidence that the acellular pertussis vaccine fails to prevent infection and transmission in nonhuman primates, and the use of bacterial cytological profiling to identify pathways targeted by antibiotics.
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73 min
November 27, 2013
TWiM #69: Bacterial DNA in the human genome
Vincent, Elio, Jo, and Michele review evidence for bacterial DNA integrated into the human genome, and control of the symbiont population in an insect midgut.
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69 min
November 14, 2013
TWiM #68: The fungus among us
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michele discuss the amazingly high level of intergenera gene exchange among haloarchaea in an Antarctic lake, and the diversity of fungi on residential surfaces and the human forehead. 
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71 min
October 30, 2013
TWiM #67: Black mushrooms and RNA thermosensors
Vincent, Elio, and Michael discuss how temperature triggers Neisseria menigitidis immune evasion, and protection of mice from ionizing radiation by feeding them black mushrooms.
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75 min
October 17, 2013
TWiM #66: The shape of a container
Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michele discuss the curious outer membrane vesicles of Neisseria meningitides, and sources of Clostridium difficile infection revealed by genome sequencing.
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68 min
October 3, 2013
TWiM #65: Leanness is transmissible
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Michelle Swanson. Vincent and Michelle reveal how the human gut microbiota can modulate obesity in mice. Links for this episode:  Gut microbiota modulate metabolism (Science)  Fighting obesity with bacteria (Science) Letters read on TWiM 065 Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.
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51 min
September 18, 2013
TWiM #64: URI and UTI at ICAAC in Denver
Vincent and Michael recorded this episode at the 53rd ICAAC in Denver, where they spoke with James Gern and James Johnson about rhinoviruses and extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli.
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78 min
September 4, 2013
TWiM #63: Superantigens, S. aureus, and the armpit microbiome
Vincent, Michael, and Michelle discuss how a Staphylococcus aureus superantigen is critical for pathogenesis in a rabbit model, and the relationship of body odor to the axilla microbiome.
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86 min
August 21, 2013
TWiM #62: Breaking bad and protein chain mail
Vincent and Michael discuss how infection with influenza A virus disperses Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms leading to disease, and an amazing protein chainmail in a viral capsid 
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79 min
August 7, 2013
TWiM #61: The irony of probiotics
Vincent, Elio, and Michele review how horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to an insect genome enables a tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis, and how probiotic bacteria work by competing for iron in the intestine.
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59 min
July 24, 2013
TWiM #60: Microbial electrochemistry and diversity-generating retroelements
Vincent, Elio, and Michael discuss how an error-prone reverse transcriptase produces enormous diversity in a Legionella protein, and using microbes to convert waste into bioelectricity and chemicals.
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71 min
July 10, 2013
TWiM #59: Are viruses part of our immune system?
Vincent and Michael discuss the finding that bacteriophage might be part of the mucosal antimicrobial defense system.
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84 min
June 20, 2013
TWiM #58: The brain microbiome?
Vincent, Elio and Michael review how underground mycelial networks carry signals that warn neighboring plants of aphid attack, and the presence of bacteria in the human brain.
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81 min
June 5, 2013
TWiM #57: Updating the human gut microbiome to degrade seaweed
Vincent, Elio and Michael discuss fungi that use pheromones to trap nematodes, and how genes obtained from marine bacteria help gut bacteria degrade algal carbohydrates. 
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58 min
May 24, 2013
TWiM #56: Live at ASM in Denver
Vincent, Elio and Michael recorded this episode before an audience at the 2013 General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology in Denver, Colorado, where they spoke with Andrew, Ferric, Suzanne, and Michelle about their research on a phage system for evading innate immunity, retractions of research papers, bacterial infections of the eye, and cytoplasmic defenses against intracellular bacteria. This episode was filmed live at ASM GM 2013 in Denver, CO. Visit www.microbeworld.org/asmlive to watch the full video archive of this episode as well as all the videos recorded during GM. 
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102 min
April 24, 2013
TWiM #55: In the copper room
Vincent, Elio and Michael discuss the finding that copper surfaces reduce microbial burden and hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit.
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85 min
April 10, 2013
TWiM #54: Dueling injectors and the microgenderome
Vincent, Elio, and Michael review how sex-dependent differences in the mouse microbiome regulate type I diabetes, and counterattack among bacteria.
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72 min
March 29, 2013
TWiM #53: Live in Manchester
Vincent, Laura, David, Kalin and Paul get together at the Society for General Microbiology meeting in Manchester, England to talk about next-generation approaches to antimicrobial therapy.
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60 min
March 11, 2013
TWiM #52: Clinical microbiology with Ellen Jo Baron
Vincent and Michael meet up with Ellen Jo Baron to talk about working in a clinical microbiology laboratory.
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60 min
February 27, 2013
TWiM #51: Cave science with Hazel Barton
Vincent, Michael, and Elio meet up with Hazel Barton to talk about cave microbiology.
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78 min
January 30, 2013
TWiM #50: These things aren’t even bacteria!
Vincent, Michael, and Stanley review the scientific career of Carl Woese.
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63 min
January 16, 2013
TWiM #49: Grape-like Clusters
Vincent, Michael, and Elio discuss the HIV co-receptor CCR5 as a receptor for S. aureus leukotoxin ED, and the vineyard yeast microbiome.
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73 min
January 3, 2013
TWiM #48: It’s all about direction
Vincent, Michael, and Jo discuss how subtle gender bias of science faculty favors male students, and the relationship of invasive infection and antibody orientation at bacterial surfaces.
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76 min
December 19, 2012
TWiM #47: Resistance on the surface
Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes on metal surfaces, and using bacteriophage to reverse antibiotic resistance.
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70 min
December 5, 2012
TWiM #46: Spore!
Vincent, Michael, and Elio meet up with Jonathan Dworkin to discuss how bacteria form spores and how they return to vegetative growth.
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69 min
November 21, 2012
TWiM #45: Secreted nucleic acids RIG a STING
Vincent, Michael, Elio review innate immune sensing of Listeria secreted bacterial nucleic acids, and how Wolbachia enhances egg production in Drosophila.
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71 min
October 24, 2012
TWiM #44: Phage interruptus
Vincent, Michael, Elio discuss the role of prophage excision in exit of Listeria from the phagosome, and analysis of bacterial communities in saliva.
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66 min
October 10, 2012
TWiM #43: Bacterial caveolae and zapping acne with phages
Vincent, Michael, Elio review formation of caveolae in a bacterium, and the limited genetic diversity and broad killing activity of P. acnes bacteriophages.
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79 min
September 26, 2012
TWiM #42: Staphylococcus, a three-star pathogen
Vincent, Michael, Elio, and Joe review highlights of the 15th International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections (ISSSI) in Lyon, France.
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71 min
September 13, 2012
TWiM #41: ICAAC live in San Francisco
Vincent and Michael travel to San Francisco for the 52nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), where they meet with Bill, John, and Victor to discuss tuberculosis, monitoring infectious disease outbreaks with online data, and outside-the-box approaches to antibacterial therapy.
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103 min
August 29, 2012
TWiM #40: A mecca for microbiology
**MicrobeWorld app users, click the "e" symbol in the bottom right corner of this description to watch a bonus video version of this episode!** Vincent and Stanley meet with Waclaw Szybalski and John Kirby at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on the occasion of its designation as a Milestones in Microbiology site. They reminisce about how the well known laboratory has advanced the science and teaching of microbiology, and discuss John’s work on the soil dwelling, predatory myxobacteria. If you don't have the app, please visit www.microbeworld.org/app to get more information about downloading the app for your iOS or Android device. This video is also available for free at www.microbeworld.org in the TWiM section, epsiode #40.
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61 min
August 15, 2012
TWiM #39: What Darwin never knew
Vincent, Michael, and Elio reviews chapters from Microbes and Evolution, a collection of short, personal essays by microbiologists.
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75 min
August 2, 2012
TWiM #38: The sound of whooping cough
Vincent, Jo, Michael, and Elio review an outbreak of pertussis in Washington, and how culturing can reveal rare members of the soil biosphere.
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70 min
July 18, 2012
TWiM #37: Microbial Jekyll and Hyde
Vincent, Jo, Michael, and Elio discuss two examples of dynamic microbial symbioses that switch between mutualistic and pathogenic states.
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77 min
July 4, 2012
TWiM #36: Domesticating a pathogen
Vincent, Michael, and Elio explore the origin of Mycoplasma pathogens of ruminants, and share their thoughts on the recent ASM General Meeting.
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80 min
June 21, 2012
TWiM #35: Ohne hauch
Vincent, Michael, and Elio review necrotizing fasciitis, and a link between surface remodeling in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
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69 min
June 4, 2012
TWiM #34: Doing the DISCO with Emiliania
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter Vincent, Michael, and Elio discuss changing populations of Emiliania huxleyi and their viruses in the North and Black Seas. Right click to download TWiM #34 (50 MB .mp3, 69 minutes). Links for this episode: The protist wonderland (Microbe) Emiliania huxleyi home page DISCO in the North Sea (FEMS Microbiol Ecol) 7000 years of Emiliania huxleyi in the Black Sea (Science) Cheshire cat escape by Emiliania huxleyi (PNAS) Letters read on TWiM 34
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68 min
May 16, 2012
TWiM #33: Tuning the immune organ
Vincent, Michael, and Ivo review the requirement for segmented, filamentous bacteria for the induction of a specific type of helper T cell in the gut. Links for this episode: Induction of Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria (Cell) Segmented filamentous bacteria take the stage (Nature) Genome of segmented filamentous bacteria reveals auxotrophy (Cell) Segmented filamentous bacteria and diabetes protection (PNAS) Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv , 
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68 min
May 2, 2012
TWiM #32: Not the shadow biosphere
Rosie Redfield talks about her evidence that a bacterium cannot grow on arsenic instead of phosphorus. 
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66 min
April 18, 2012
TWiM 31: Screen door on a submarine
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Jo Handelsman, and Michael Schmidt Vincent, Jo, and Michael discuss an archetypal protein transport system in bacterial outer membranes, and evidence that gut microbial enterotypes might not fall into defined groups. Links for this episode: Discovery of a TAM, a new bacterial protein transport system (Nat Struct Mol Biol) Commentary on TAM discovery Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome (Nature) Gut enterotypes might be less clear-cut (Ed Yong) Letters read on TWiM #31
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75 min
April 4, 2012
TWiM #30: Unraveling melioidosis and insulin resistance
On episode #30 of the podcast, Vincent, Elio, and Michael review how a toxin from Burkholderia pseudomallei inhibits protein synthesis, and the role of the gut microbiome in modulating insulin resistance in mice lacking an innate immune sensor.
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70 min
March 21, 2012
TWiM #29: Death and an iron-loaded spike
On episode #29 of the podcast, Vincent and Stanley review how a phage pierces the cell membrane with an iron-loaded spike, and two programmed cell death systems in E. coli.
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62 min
March 7, 2012
TWiM #28: Not unorganized bags of enzymes
Vincent, Michael, and Elio review how competition within a host drives virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the expanding universe of the bacterial cytoskeleton.
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77 min
February 22, 2012
TWiM #27: An inflamed gut is good for Salmonella
Vincent, Elio, and Michael review how inflammation allows Salmonella to compete with fermenting gut microbes, and a riboswitch in bacterial and Archeal species that is triggered by fluoride.
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74 min
February 8, 2012
TWiM #26: Suum cuique
Vincent, Elio, and Michael discuss the finding of Sutterella species in the gut of autistic children, and methods for cultivating oral bacteria. 
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75 min
January 25, 2012
TWiM #25: Magnetotactic bacteria and totally drug resistant TB
On episode #25 of the podcast, Vincent, Elio, and Michael review bacteria that use the earth’s magnetic field for navigation, and identification of totally drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
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76 min
January 11, 2012
TWiM #24: This year in microbiology
Vincent, Michael, and Cliff review ten compelling microbiology stories from 2011.
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79 min
December 28, 2011
TWiM #23: Fighting antibiotics with toxic gas and starvation
Vincent, Jo, Elio, and Michael explain how a swarming bacterium helps disperse a non-motile fungus, and bacterial antibiotic tolerance mediated by hydrogen sulfide and starvation responses.
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76 min
December 14, 2011
TWiM #22: Microbiology 911
Vincent and Michael speak with Alfred Sacchetti, MD, Chief of Emergency Services at Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center, about microbial infections encountered in the emergency room.
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98 min
November 30, 2011
TWiM #21: Symbiotic margheritas
Vincent and Elio discuss ancient symbiosis between Alphaproteobacteria and catenulid flatworms, and a toxin from Helicobacter pylori that engages the mitochondrial fission machinery to induce host cell death.
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68 min
November 16, 2011
TWiM #20: Facebook for bacteria
On episode #20 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Vincent, Michael, and Elio follow up on the outbreaks of E. coli in Germany and cholera in Haiti, then discuss genes that confer self-identity to Proteus mirabilis.
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67 min
November 2, 2011
TWiM #19: Your microbiome is what you eat
Vincent, Michael, Elio, and Jo discuss the genome sequence of Y. pestis from victims of the Black Death, and the effect of diet on gut microbial enterotypes.
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59 min
October 19, 2011
TWiM #18: Escherichia coli K-12, an emerging pathogen?
Vincent, Michael, Elio, and Stanley explain how to make the human intestinal commensal and benign laboratory bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 into an invasive organism, and the unearthing of century-old spores in New York City.
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74 min
October 5, 2011
TWiM #17: Debugging endosymbiosis
Vincent, Michael, and Elio focus on endosymbiosis: the rapid spread of Ricekttsia in whitefiles, and a metabolic patchwork in nested symbionts of mealybugs.
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70 min
September 22, 2011
TWiM #16: ICAAC Live
On episode #16 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Vincent, Michael, Arturo, Stuart, and David converse about antimicrobial resistance and why most fungi do not cause disease at the 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC).
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89 min
September 7, 2011
TWiM #15: Microbial long distance relationships
On episode #15 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Vincent, Michael and Jo review the number of species on Earth, evidence that the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak originated in Nepal, and how gut microbiota influence the immune response to influenza virus infection of the lung. 
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58 min
August 24, 2011
TWiM #14: Vomocytosis and microbial transistors
On episode #14 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Stanley, Margaret, Michael and Elio review how the fungus Cryptococcus escapes from macrophages, and electrical conductivity in nanowires formed by the bacterium Geobacter.
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67 min
August 10, 2011
TWiM #13: Probiotics and inflammasomes: Telling good bacteria from the bad
On episode #13 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Stanley, Jo, Michael and Elio discuss how colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis are regulated by an inflammasome, and amelioration of intestinal inflammation in mice by delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein to the colon.
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57 min
July 27, 2011
TWiM #12: Photothermal nanoblades and genome engineering
Vincent, Margaret, Michael and Elio review the use of photothermal nanoblades to dissect the Burkholderia intracellular life cycle, and manipulation of chromosomes in vivo for genome-wide codon replacement in E. coli.
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75 min
July 13, 2011
TWiM #11: Chickens, antibiotics, and asthma
Vincent, Margaret, Michael and Elio review the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes in chicken meat and in humans, and a beneficial effect of Helicobacter pylori colonization on the development of allergen-induced asthma.
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72 min
June 29, 2011
TWiM #10: A symbiotic cloaking device
On episode #10 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Vincent, Margaret, Elio, Michael and Dickson discuss the symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and the luminous, gram-negative bacterium Vibrio fischeri.
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68 min
June 15, 2011
TWiM #9: Bean sprouts and E. coli O104:H4
Vincent, Michael, and Cliff review the outbreak of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in Germany caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4.
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76 min
June 1, 2011
TWiM # 8: Live in NOLA
Vincent, Michael, and Stanley recorded TWiM #8 live at the 2011 ASM General Meeting in New Orleans, with guests Andreas Baümler, Nicole Dubilier, and Paul Rainey. They spoke about how pathogens benefit from disease, symbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine invertebrates, and repetitive sequences in bacteria.
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86 min
May 18, 2011
TWiM #7: Cycles of life and death, light and dark
Vincent, Cliff, Elio, Margaret, and Michael discuss programmed cell death in E. coli, and the daily synthesis and degradation of enzymes needed for photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria.
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64 min
May 4, 2011
TWiM #6: Antibacterial therapy with bacteriophage: Reality or fiction?
Vincent, Cliff, Michael and Elio review the use of bacteriophages to manage infections, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteriophage from urban sewage and river water.
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82 min
April 20, 2011
TWiM #5: Mercury-methylating Desulfovibrio and antimicrobial nanoparticles
Vincent, Ron, Cliff, and Michael discuss the genome sequence of a mercury-methylating bacterium and the antimicrobial effects of nanoparticles.
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75 min
April 6, 2011
TWiM #4: Cantaloupes and Salmonella gastroenteritis
Vincent, Cliff, Margaret, and Michael review foodborne bacterial illness in the context of outbreaks associated with cantaloupes and Lebanon bologna.
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74 min
March 23, 2011
TWiM #3: Anthrax, genomics and the FBI inquiry
Vincent, Jo, Cliff, and Ron explore the genome analysis done in support of the Amerithrax investigation, and an insecticidal enterotoxin-deficient mutant of Bacillus thurigiensis.
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60 min
March 9, 2011
TWiM #2: The plague, microbial virulence and the gut microbiome
Vincent, Cliff, and Michael review a fatal laboratory acquired Yersinia pestis infection, and how gut bacteria control body weight and metabolic activity.
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75 min
February 23, 2011
TWiM #1: Neisseria LINEs up
On episode #1 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Vincent, Cliff, Michael, and Stan discuss transfer of DNA from a human host to a bacterial pathogen, and the ability of dry copper to kill bacteria on contact.
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63 min
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