Join David Puder as he covers different topics on psychiatry and psychotherapy. He will draw from the wisdom of his mentors, research, in-session therapy and psychiatry experience, and his own journey through mental health to discuss topics that affect mental health professionals and popsychology enthusiasts alike. Through interviews, he will dialogue with both medical students, residents and expert psychiatrists and psychotherapists, and even with people who have been through their own mental health journey. This podcast was created to help others in their journey to becoming wise, empathic, genuine and connected in their personal and professional lives.
On today’s episode of the podcast, I am interviewing with Dr. Ariana Cunningham. We cover the DSM5 criteria for schizophrenia and the differential diagnoses for schizophrenia.
Joseph Wong (MS3), Ariana Cunningham, M.D., David Puder M.D.Diagnosing schizophrenia Doctors and therapists need to be able to rule everything else out before they can land on schizophrenia as an official diagnosis. The specific symptoms are known as “first-rank symptoms,” which we will cover later in the article, that will help with diagnosing patients (Schneider, 1959). Eighty-five percent of people with schizophrenia endorse these symptoms, but be wary of jumping to conclusions, because they are not specific to schizophrenia and, in some studies, are also endorsed by bipolar manic patients (Andreasen, 1991).DSM5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed.)Schizophrenia is a clinical diagnosis made through observation of the patient and the patient’s history. There must be 2 or more of the characteristic symptoms below (Criterion A) with at least one symptom being items 1, 2 or 3. These symptoms must be present for a significant portion of time during a 1 month period (or less, if successfully treated). The patient must have continuous, persistent signs of disturbance for at least 6 months, which includes the 1 month period of symptoms (or less, if successfully treated) and may include prodromal or residual periods. For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care, are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset. If the onset is in childhood or adolescence, there is failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational achievement.Criterion A:A. Positive symptoms (presence of abnormal behavior) 1. Delusions2. Hallucinations3. Disorganized speech (eg, frequent derailment or incoherence)4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviorB. Negative symptoms (absence or disruption of normal behavior) 5. Negative symptoms include affective flattening, alogia, avolition, anhedonia, asociality.Development, Course and Risk Factors Psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia typically occur in young adulthood (late teens to mid-30s) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). About 80% of schizophrenia presents with acute onset, intermittent symptoms and few/no symptoms while about 20% present with insidious onset, continuous symptoms and poorer outcomes (Bleuler, 1978). In terms of age of onset, it has been well documented that males present earlier than females (early to mid 20s for males vs late 20s for females) (Patel, Cherian, Gohil & Atkinson, 2014). There are two key factors that have been associated with poorer prognosis. Earlier age of onset, which is highly associated with schizophrenia in males, has been well-documented to be associated with a poorer prognosis (Kao & Liu, 2010). The deficit form of schizophrenia (persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia) have also been shown to be associated with a poorer prognosis (Kirkpatrick, 2008). The highest risk factors for schizophrenia have been tied to genetic factors such as having an affected immediate family member or being the offspring of an immigrant from certain countries (Torrey, 2012). Molecular genetics have also been used to show that genetic inheritance is highly associated with schizophrenia, although it is not currently known how much genetic variation increases the risk for schizophrenia (Ripke, 2014). Non-genetic risk factors for schizophrenia include infectious causes such as Toxoplasmosis, living in an urban environment, birth seasonality and maternal exposure to influenza (Torrey, 2012). Although functional recovery is rarer early on in the course of schizophrenia, the good news is that timely and intensive treatment can impact functional recovery early in the illness (Robinson, 2004). Patients who had more intensive intervention showed greater improvement in quality of life, higher functioning in school/work, and less psychopathology (Kane, 2016).Differential diagnosisWhen I see a patient that presents with these symptoms, the first thing I consider is substance use. I check if they had prior urine drug screens in their medical records, physical signs of substance use (e.g. poor dentition, track marks) and history of motor vehicle accidents. Even if history and physical condition do not suggest substance use, it’s common practice to order a urine drug screen on anyone coming into an inpatient psychiatry unit and look at prior drug screens in the medical record. Other considerations include psychosis due to another medical condition (e.g. Wilson’s disease), personality disorder (long history of passive suicidal intent dating back to adolescence for borderline personality disorder, odd beliefs associated with Cluster A personality disorders, etc.), mania (e.g. rapid talking, grandiosity, decreased need for sleep) or severe depression (long progressive history with eventual psychosis). For patients manifesting with some, but not all of the symptoms of schizophrenia, here is a list of differential diagnoses. With schizophrenia being a diagnosis of exclusion, it is important to consider all possible diagnoses. A. Based on timeline of symptoms (American Psychiatric Association, 2013): Brief Psychotic Disorder: Presence of > 1 positive symptom lasting 1 day to 1 month . Can be precipitated by stressors or have peripartum onset. Schizophreniform: Same diagnostic criteria as schizophrenia, except lasting for at least 1 month, but less than 6 months. May be the start of schizophrenia, but not all patients with schizophreniform go on to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.Social and occupational decline do not need to be present like they do in schizophrenia. B. Presence of mood disorder features (APA, 2013)Schizoaffective: Meets criteria for schizophrenia as well as major mood disorder (manic episodes or significant depressive episodes that have occurred at different times in the person’s life). Schizoaffective disorder is differentiated by major mood disorder with psychotic features by the presence of > 2 weeks of psychotic symptoms without major mood episode.Bipolar Mood Disorder: Bipolar I: Meets criteria for current or past manic episode that could be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes. Bipolar II: Meets criteria for current or past hypomanic episode and major depressive episode. Typically, a manic patient will take a few days to fall asleep when they are in an episode even when on significant medications. Major Depressive Disorder Severe with Psychotic Symptoms: Psychotic symptoms (e.g. delusions or hallucinations) exclusively occur during a major depressive or manic episode, which is differentiated by schizoaffective disorder, which is characterized by > 2 weeks of psychotic symptoms with major mood episode. There is a long period of depression leading up to the psychotic symptoms. The patient usually by the time they have psychosis has been depressed for months if not years. The psychosis and depression will not change in 2-3 days like they can in someone hospitalized with borderline personality disorder. C. Personality Disorders (APA 2013): Borderline Personality Disorder (Cluster B): Long-standing pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsive behavior (e.g. sexual or self-harming), and mood instability (e.g. feelings of emptiness, intense dysphoria) . A borderline personality disorder patient will have negative inner “voices” that will lead them to fear they are hearing things, but they can put on a social veneer and appear put together. A schizophrenic patient cannot put on a social veneer when in a disorganized and psychotic state. These patients also have a history of passive suicidality dating back to adolescence. Schizotypal personality (Cluster A): Long-standing pattern of odd or eccentric beliefs and/or perceptual disturbances that do not rise to the level of delusions or hallucinations.Shares many similar symptoms as schizophrenia, but schizotypal personality disorder can be distinguished from schizophrenia as the personality disorder is present before the onset of psychotic symptoms and persists even when the psychotic symptoms vs. a period of persistent psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizoid personality (Cluster A): Long-standing pattern of little interest in social relationships or intimacy.Shares similar symptoms as schizophrenia such as flattened affect, but does not present with psychosis.Schizoid personality disorder can be distinguished from schizophrenia as the personality disorder is present before the onset of psychotic symptoms and persists even when the psychotic symptoms vs. a period of persistent psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. D. Other considerations: Substance-induced psychosis: Symptoms occur during intoxication or acute withdrawal and do not persist after the individual is sober. The people who are coming off of methamphetamines typically want to sleep the first few days and are irritable coming off of meth, while people with schizophrenia will talk with you for a bit, and be awake during the day (although sometimes lying in bed doing nothing). THC has been associated with an increased risk of developing psychosis. A meta-analysis of 18 studies involving 66,816 individuals gave an OR of 3.90 (95% CI 2.84 to 5.34) for the risk of schizophrenia and other psychosis-related outcomes among the heaviest cannabis users compared to nonusers (Marconi, 2016).Psychosis due to a general medical condition or medication: Symptoms can occur with other medical conditions such as CVA or TBI, Wilson’s disease, porphyria, or syphilis infection (watch for it in HIV patients) as well as medications (e.g. steroids) and certain dietary supplements. Delusional disorder: One or more delusions (false belief system) that are fixed and persistent, lasting for > 1 month. Can be differentiated from schizophrenia by the lack of other symptoms besides delusions. An exception to this is that patients may have olfactory or tactile hallucinations consistent with the delusion, but they won’t have auditory hallucinations that is most commonly associated with schizophrenia (Chaudhury, 2010; Opjordsmoen, 2014). Functioning is also not impaired compared to schizophrenia. Pervasive developmental disorders: May present with symptoms resembling psychosis or negative symptoms; however, an important factor to consider before diagnosing schizophrenia is the patient’s developmental pattern. For example, for a 3 - 5 year old child, imaginary friends are common for that developmental stage and shouldn’t be instantly labelled as a visual hallucination- so when you listen to their vocabulary consider what age they are even if they look physically much older (Taylor & Mottweiler, 2008). “An additional diagnosis of schizophrenia should only be made in a patient with autism spectrum disorder or communication disorders if psychotic symptoms are present for at least a month” (APA 2013). For more on schizophrenia check out these other episodes:Schizophrenia with Dr. Cummings: Controversies, Brain Science, Crime, History, Exercise, Successful TreatmentThe History and Use of Antipsychotics with Dr. Cummings
On today’s episode of the podcast, Ariana Cunningham and I continue our discussion from the first episode about schizophrenia, focusing on the clinical manifestations of the disease.
Ariana Cunningham, M.D., David Puder, M.D., Clinical manifestations Many people worry that they have schizophrenia. I receive messages or inquires often of people asking about symptoms and manifestations. If you have those types of questions, or if you’re a mental health professional who needs to brush up on symptoms and medications, this article should help you. There are many clinical observations of how schizophrenia presents itself. Cognitive impairments usually precede the onset of the main symptoms, while social and occupational impairments follow those main symptoms. Here are the main symptoms of schizophrenia:Hallucinations: a perception of a sensory process in the absence of an external source. They can be auditory, visual, somatic, olfactory, or gustatory reactions.Most common for men “you are gay”Most common for women “you are a slut or whore”Delusions: having a fixed, false belief. They can be bizarre or non-bizarre and their content can often be categorized as grandiose, paranoid, nihilistic, or erotomanic Erotomania = an uncommon paranoid delusion that is typified by someone having the delusion that another person is infatuated with them.This is a common symptom, approximately 80% of people with schizophrenia experience delusions.Often we only see this from their changed behavior, they don’t tell us this directly.Disorganization: present in both behavior and speech. Speech disorganization can be described in the following ways:Tangential speech – The person gets increasingly further off the topic without appropriately answering a question.Circumstantial speech – The person will eventually answer a question, but in a markedly roundabout manner.Derailment – The person suddenly switches topic without any logic or segue.Neologisms – The creation of new, idiosyncratic words.Word salad – Words are thrown together without any sensible meaning.Verbigeration – Seemingly meaningless repetition of words, sentences, or associationsTo note, the most commonly observed forms of abnormal speech are tangentiality and circumstantiality, while derailment, neologisms, and word salad are considered more severe.Cognitive impairment:Different processing speeds Verbal learning and memory issuesVisual learning and memory issuesReasoning/executive functioning (including attention and working memory) issuesVerbal comprehension problemsMood and/or anxiety: mood and anxiety disorders occur at a higher rate in schizophrenic patients than in the general population, and for this reason it is important for providers to . Estimates of the lifetime prevalence of depression in schizophrenia vary widely—from 6 to 75%—based on differing study characteristics including varying definitions of depression, patient settings, and durations of observation (Conus et al, 2010; Hausman et al, 2002; McRenolds, 2013). There is a higher prevalence of anxiety in patients with early-onset schizophrenia than in patients with later onset. Suicidality: People with schizophrenia have a higher rate of suicide than the general population. Generally, 5% of 10% of all completed suicides are people with schizophrenia (Hor et al, 2010; Arsenault et al, 2004).There are also some associated signs we want to make sure you are aware of, even though they aren’t considered central to the diagnosis of schizophrenia:Neurological signs aka “soft signs” include slight impairments of sensory integration and motor coordination (Heinrichs et al, 1988). Some examples of this include: R-L confusion, agraphesthesia (the inability to recognize letters or numbers traced on the skin, usually on the palm of the hand), olfactory dysfunction, astereognosis (the inability to identify familiar objects by touch alone). Be sure if you see one of these symptoms that you consider the possibility that they could be a side effect of medications.Catatonia is another important state sometimes associated we would like you to be familiar with. A helpful tool to use when evaluating a patient is the Busch Francis Catatonia rating scale which lists all the criteria associated with catatonia and 0-3 rating scale for each.Interestingly, another association we see in people with schizophrenia is that there are higher rates of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. In fact the life expectancy is reduced 10-20 years compared with the general population. The main medical mortality is heart disease.In conclusionOn the podcast episode, we discuss the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia and what you would be looking for when making a diagnosis. The more we understand about this disorder—how the symptoms manifest, in what order they often present, and how to differentiate these signs from adverse drug reactions, and expected comorbidities—the better. Improved understanding of this will improve diagnosis and equip providers to implement treatment sooner, thus improving the prognosis and projected functionality of patients with schizophrenia.In the next podcast we will be discussing the following topics:How the disease progresses?DSMV definition and diagnostic criteriaDifferential diagnosesSymptom management:PharmaceuticalNon pharmaceuticalHere are some further episodes on schizophrenia: How Psychiatric Medications Work with Dr Cummings Schizophrenia with Dr. Cummings Schizophrenia in Film and History
On today’s episode of of the podcast, I will discuss marijuana use and how it affects mental health with Daniel Binus, the chief psychiatrist at Beautiful Minds, near Sacramento, California. Also joining us is a third-year medical student, Victoria Agee.
David Puder, M.D., Victoria AgeeWhy are we even talking about marijuana? There are a few reasons we believe this is important to talk about. First, as medical professionals, we often see patients who want help with their anxiety, depression, ADD and suicidality. They say they use cannabis, and that they need cannabis, to help calm those symptoms. When we explain the research to them, it still takes them awhile to let go of their habits and embrace other forms of therapy and medication that is a better long-term option. Also, we head into a time when marijuana is being legalized, there are tons of THC companies that will benefit from suppressing this information and even suppress these studies we will reference here. Hiding this information could be detrimental to society’s mental health. While there are some potential benefits to one component of marijuana (CBD), something I will review in the future (evidence is fairly young in that field), the THC component can be highly damaging to mental health. Whether or not people are willing to admit it, cannabis is actually highly addictive. One of the symptoms of addiction is intellectualizing reasons for use. Not only does it change the way the brain functions, it changes the way we see and perceive the world. It also changes our visual and spatial abilities. If you’re an architect or use math in your job, it deeply affects those abilities as well. THC stays in your brain a long time—it can be weeks (or even a month) before people get the full function of their brain back and the fog has cleared. What is the research on cannabis? Ganja is from the cut tops of leaves (5-8% THC content) and hashish is from the resin and is therefore more potent (10-20% THC content) Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly used substance worldwide. It causes long-term changes in the brainRecent research shows that consistent cannabis use will change the way your DNA is expressed in the brain. It will upregulate and downregulate proteins in the brain, and can change the morphology of the way it works. Marijuana, in fact, leads to changes in our genes over time, called epigenetic changes (Szutorisz, 2018). So the initial effect may be pleasure or fun, but long term, it can create changes that take months to develop in a way that people don’t understand why they are having new issues that pop up. Basically, it’s not changing your gene structure, but it is changing the expression of those genes. Anytime you make positive food choices or develop a consistent exercise routine or make physical changes, epigenetic changes occur that are healthy for long term change (see my episode on diet and exercise)It’s not surprising that marijuana also causes similar changes in the brain, but not in a healthy way. When people use cannabis heavily, it causes our endogenous cannabinoids that naturally occur within the body to shift, which can create a disruption in our natural release of cannabinoids. This actually creates a direct correlation between heavy cannabis use and lower IQs (He, 2019). It lowers intelligenceStudies show that over 20 year cannabis use, people lose an average of 6-8 IQ points. That means you could go from intelligent to average, or even average to below average.It affects men’s sexual healthIn a survey of 8,650 people, women had no association with any of the sexual problems from marijuana use. Men, however, had significant associations between daily cannabis use and reporting an inability to reach orgasm (OR 3.94), reaching orgasm too quickly (OR 2.68), and reaching orgasm too slowly (OR. 2.05). Among the 424 men who reported reaching orgasm too quickly, there was an association between frequency of cannabis use and the extent to which reaching orgasm too quickly was experienced as problematic (F- 2.85, P
On today’s episode of the podcast, I interview Ginger Simonton, a PhD student finishing her dissertation. We will cover her in-depth research on alleviating the symptomology of childhood sexual abuse.We will specifically be talking about the link between women who have been sexually abused, never given a chance to heal, and how it has affected their mental and physical health, and programs that can benefit them. What is childhood sexual abuse? “The CDC defines the act of CSA as “inducing or coercing a child to engage in sexual acts” that include “fondling, penetration, and exposing a child to other sexual activities” (2017).”The facts:88% of sexual abuse cases happen with someone the child knows (Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, & Hamby, 2005)20-30% of women experience some form of sexual abuse before they reach 18 years old (Pereda et al., 2009; Stoltenborgh, Van Ijzendoorn, Euser, Bakermans-Kranenburg, 2011; Bolen & Scannapieco, 1999; Holmes & Slap, 1998; Finkelhor, 1994) 20-40% of survivors have no adverse effects later in life (resilience is the norm) (Paras, Murad, Chen, Goranson, Sattler, Colbenson, Elamin, Seime, Prokop, & Zirakzadeh, 2009)How does it affect health?Statistics show that 20-40% of survivors have no negative effects later in life. This is dependent on the response of caregivers. If someone was supported, protected, validated and responded to in a therapeutic way, the child has a higher chance of resiliency, which occurs through secure attachment. If the child has secure attachment, they can usually move forward with their lives. What Simonton’s study shows is that women who were silenced, shamed or not given a voice to resolve those childhood sexual trauma issues have more mental and physical health issues than normal. If a woman was in a multi-dimensionally unstable family—drug use, no structural stability, alcoholism, revictimization—they are less likely to have resiliency. Bodily representations of chronic stress: Women who experienced childhood sexual abuse that was never recognized by a loving caregiver demonstrate biopsychosocial health problems both in childhood and later on in life. Sexual abuse causes intensive stress, and there are many subsequent health issues that stem from it. What we see is the body begin to break down in the face of cortisol and other stress-related hormones that are released over years of unresolved trauma. One of the first indicators that drives them to seek medical help is usually a physical ailment. Often the patient experiences a few health issues, and ends up medicating the physical things, but the underlying cause is never treated. These show up in many different ways, but there are some predominant issues such as: MigrainesBladder problemsHypertensionAnxietyPTSDDepression Chronic fatigueTMJIrritable bowelFibromialgiaNon-epileptic seizuresDiabetes (chronic stress makes it more difficult to control)If your patient does have a chronic illness, that does not mean they have experienced childhood sexual trauma. However, if they are retaining stress from childhood sexual abuse, they are more likely to develop comorbid mental and physical health issues later on.Helping patients who have experienced sexual abuseBecause we are meaning-making creatures, we assign values to situations in our lives. If something good happens, we assign positive meanings to it—we are good people, we are highly valued, we are loved, etc. If something bad happens, we assign meaning to it—we are gross, we are worthless, we are disgusting. As we internalize these beliefs, we begin to act according to those meanings in ways that further damage our bodies and minds. So how do we help our patients revisit the meaning they’ve assigned to these traumatic experiences? Simonton’s research shows different programs and therapies that can help patients cope with the trauma and relief their symptomology. Ask them their storyIt’s important for a patient to feel they are revealing their story slowly and gradually if that’s what makes them most comfortable. Simply asking for them to tell their story, then helping them unpack the information if they mention sexual abuse, is the best way to go about it. Don’t lead the witnessSome therapists who have been sexually abused themselves, or who are particularly drawn to sexual abuse victims, can tend to transfer other patient’s experiences and make conclusions about patients who maybe have not experienced sexual abuse. If this is the case, the therapist can sometimes “lead the witness” by suggesting and leading the patient to believe they have experienced this when they have not. Get the right team around themIt takes a good team to help someone recover from the trauma of sexual abuse. A good friend and family support group, plus therapists and internal medicine doctors (if the patient is on medications for their comorbid physical ailments) will all bolster the patient’s healing process. As a therapist, try to work with the patient’s internal medicine doctor to get a complete picture of the patient’s whole health. That way, as the patient heals, their medication can be managed accordingly. Family involvement is critical to patients improving quality of life. Women who had a partner or sibling did much better and received the fullest benefit of having someone with them for home care and help. Also, someone with a spiritual base or community demonstrated higher health quality of life throughout intake and therapy. Having someone with the patient who can be there day in and day out leads to a much higher success rate than when they have isolated experiences with the therapist. What is difficult is when a person experiences positive change in their therapy, but goes back to a rigid family who relates mostly to the patient’s illness. Illness can even create a continuing underlying family rule of keeping the victim in her lower, negatively associated role.This also helps the women establish a new relationship with whoever they bring to therapy with them in a sexual abuse program—it helps them re-relate to a person in a new healthy way. They are no longer just the victim, they can portray new goals for healing and see rapid growth alongside their partner, family or sibling. Get them back in touch with their bodiesMany people who experience sexual abuse learn that their body is their enemy, a conduit of pain. They learn to dissociate to be able to survive, and that ability carries over into adulthood. Dissociation is a powerful tool that helps them be able to mentally “leave” their body so they can withstand physical pain or trauma. One fascinating note Simonton made is that patients never recounted physical pain when they talked about their trauma. Their minds were so disconnected from their bodies that they had no memory of the physical consequences. Women who do this have been carrying this unchartered territory of pain in their physical bodies for so long that by the time they reach adulthood, they have to learn to reconnect with their bodies. When we start to break the meaning apart to help patients begin to heal, we have to very delicately focus on what it means to reconnect their mind and body. Getting patients refocused on their bodies and unearthing the resident trauma that is causing the stress-related illnesses will help them unlock their emotional and mental healing processes. They have an opportunity to discover that their body has a story to tell. By reconnecting to their bodies, they give it a voice to process its trauma. How to listen well There are a few things you can do to make sure your patient feels heard and validated when they open up about their sexual abuse. “Witnessing” is an important one. Some people who’ve experienced sexual abuse have stories that were never heard or validated. When someone shares a trauma story and it is not validated (shame and silencing might have occurred with their family) it can re-damage the patient. When they share and feel validated, it can be a healing experience for them. Asking them how it makes their body feel when they share about their experience is also important. It connects the somatic representations with the emotions and thoughts, which is important because these patients have most likely dissociated from their emotions and bodily sensations in general, but more so when they talk about their experiences. How to listen, empathize and not take on the emotional repercussions of traumaHearing stories of trauma is difficult as an empathic therapist. Make sure you practice what you preach—have your own therapist to help when you need it. Find a colleague who also helps people through childhood sexual abuse and go speak to them about your feelings. Determine a way you can take care of yourself when you get home from your work day. Create a space where you can enjoy your family, spirituality and recreation (including cardio and strength training). Develop a treatment team of colleagues that works together to process through the difficult stories you are each hearing. Ask fellow therapists how they feel—check in with your coworkers and fellow therapists to make sure you are each sustaining your own health. What therapy techniques work best for the sexually abused?EFT - Emotionally focused therapy for couples is an effective, research based spousal support therapy system. This teaches the spouses to be effective witnesses in the trauma story and is able to bring the support to inside of their home. DBT - Dialectical behavioral therapy is incredibly helpful for people who are struggling with PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse. Transference Focused PsychotherapyMentalization Based PsychotherapyHow can you tell what patients should be in regular, weekly therapy versus an intensive outpatient therapy for sexual abuse?Many excellent outpatient therapists are doing a great job at treating patients who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. There are a few specific factors that could mean your patient would be better treated in a more intensive outpatient programs, such as:If they are in a multi dimensionally unstable family where their health is being impaired. (AKA If they do not have a support system at home.)If they are medically fragile because the body is beginning to break down. Some outpatient programs have internal medicine staff to ensure the patients who are medically fragile are being physically supported. If your patient doesn’t seem to be thriving or processing well, recommend them to an intensive outpatient program, with the idea that when they become more stable, they will titrate down to weekly therapy again. If the patient is on so many medications, recreational drugs or alcohol that it puts them in a dissociative state where they are unable to concentrate and do deeper therapy work, an outpatient program might help support them while they come off of medications and process the difficulty of their trauma. (Many therapists don’t realize how much medications can dull the mind and make therapy very difficult.)After a few weeks, some patients may need to be detoxed before they can fully process the emotional trauma. During supportive forms of therapy, who should the patient bring with them to be a support?The family is not always the most supportive group for the patient. There could be a partner or friend who is therapeutic and non-judgemental enough. However, it’s important to encourage the patient to bring someone they feel completely safe around. This person is supposed to help the patient grow and move forward, to make good choices outside of the therapy office. This person must have the best interest of the patient in mind, and not prefer the old maladaptive patterns the patient was in. They must support the patient in their growth and journey of health. Many patients end up in relationships that are similar to the dysfunction of their trauma. How do you encourage a patient to find or make a friend that is healthy and can support them? Help the patient identify their feedback loops, through identifying their early narratives and early meaning-making experiences. Start to make changes as to how the person sees themself so that they see themselves as worthy. This is the best way to have lasting effects on their relational patterns. A victim is a victim because they have a perpetrator. If there is no longer a perpetrator because they’ve surrounded themselves with healthy people, the patient is able to shed the victim narrative. From chronic pain to thrivingWe have found that patients who receive therapy are able to reduce the negative biopsychosocial effects. They are getting back to school, getting new jobs or raises at work, setting new goals. Some people get stuck and lose hope, they don’t see it’s possible. Eventually though, if they keep seeking help, they are able to have breakthroughs and change their lives. If you’re interested in learning more, here are a few podcasts and articles about emotional trauma: How to Treat Emotional TraumaHow to Fix Emotional DetachmentEmotional Shutdown - Understanding Polyvagal Theory***If you have been sexually abused, or think you have been sexually abused, connect with a therapist who specializes in this.
The science behind forgiveness and how it affects our mental health
What is forgiveness? On this week’s episode of the podcast, I talk about the power of forgiveness. It’s scientifically proven that forgiveness can affect our health. As mental health professionals, this has important impacts both personally and professionally. I have also included a downloadable PDF for you to give your patients to help you walk them through the act of forgiving. As a therapist, when I say the word “forgiveness,” my patients can shut down if I don’t explain it properly. Why? Because just the need for forgiveness is proof that they have been wronged. When we are wronged, it can be hard to let go of that hurt. That’s why I wanted to start out by saying what forgiveness (and this episode) is not about.Forgiveness is not:It is not approving. It is not excusing the action, denying it, or overlooking it.It is not just moving on (particularly not with cold indifference).It is not forgetting or pretending it did not occur.It is not justifying or letting go of possibly needed justice. It is not calming down.It is not a bargain or negotiation.It is more than ceasing to be angry.It is more than being neutral towards the other.It is more than making oneself feel good.It is one step towards reconciliation, but it is different from reconciliation, which requires a sincere apology from all parties. It is not dependent on the one you forgive—that would give the other power to control you by keeping you in your bitterness. Consider Corrie Ten Boom, who forgave the Nazis after losing her family in the Holocaust, or Marietta Jaeger who, after her daughter was kidnapped and brutally murdered, was able to forgive. People can forgive, even when the person who wronged them is unknown or dead.It is not a one time event, but may need to be repeated (sometimes the hurt comes back, sometimes you need to start every morning with forgiveness).It is not a restoration of full trust (trust takes time to develop or to be reinstated).So what is forgiveness?The Definition of Forgiveness:Forgiveness is a process. It involves allowing yourself to feel the negative emotions you justly have towards an offense, and really putting the wrong into words in a congruent and authentic truthful way. Then choosing to release it, either giving it to a higher power, or letting it go to a cosmic sense of justice, or earthly legal justice system, and then continuing the process until negative affect is replaced with peace, empathy and compassion. When someone forgives they no longer have a portion of their daily life consumed in negative feelings towards the person or situation. “People, on rationally determining that they have been unfairly treated, forgive when they willfully abandon resentment and related responses (to which they have a right) and endeavor to respond to the wrongdoer based on the moral principle of beneficence, which may include compassion, unconditional worth, generosity, and moral love (to which the wrongdoer, by nature of the harmful act or acts, has no right)” (Enright, 2015).Elliot (2010) cited Enright and Fitzgibbons (2000) and came up with two types of forgiveness:Decisional forgiveness: the experience of granting forgiveness without eliminating the emotion, but in this, resentment may continue. It involves a cognitive model where therapist works with the client one time to make decision to forgive.Emotional forgiveness: the patient must demonstrate changes in emotion and motivation toward their offender.Studies show that:Decisional forgiveness can reduce hostility, but it is only marginally effective in improving stress levels or emotional health (Elliot 2010 citing Baskin and Enright 2004, Worthington 2007). This means that emotional forgiveness is the goal of all forgiveness therapy. What’s the most effective way to help our patients forgive? Individual therapy that accomplishes Enright’s 4 phases over 20 encounters is “clearly most effective” way to actually accomplish forgiveness. (Elliot 2010 citing Lundahl 2008)Why should we care about forgiveness? Forgiveness isn’t a “nice thing to do,” it has real health ramifications that have been thoroughly studied, and it’s a fact that the act of forgiving can be a real change agent in therapy and long term health. Here are the studies: People who live with depression and a history of maltreatment have an upregulation of their inflammatory response compared to those with no history of maltreatment (Danese et al. 2007 as cited by Elliot 2010)Unforgiveness is reflected in specific cortisol levels, adrenaline production, and cytokine balance (Elliot 2010 citing Worthington 2005)Cause-effect relationship between pain and anger is similar to the anger-depression relationship. some studies show that just the anticipation of pain is associated with anger. (Okifuji 1999)Chronic pain often arises from injury, or accident, thus anger is directed usually at the one responsible, or oneself. (Greenwood 2003)General intensity of anger is important, but also specific targets of anger seem to be essential factors in understanding adaptation to chronic pain. Some research has shown that inward anger is more common in those with chronic pain vs. those individuals with different targets of anger. A study using the MPI (multidimensional pain inventory- a 60 item self reported inventory to assess different aspects of chronic pain) showed that 88 people endorsed anger at themselves and scored 0.38 on the anger inventory. Those that endorsed anger at other targets all scored below 0.30. Anger should be viewed as a multifactorial construct in chronic pain. (Okifuji 1999)Specifically, in chronic low back pain, a preliminary study of 61 adult patients with chronic low back pain (31 recruited from pain and palliative clinic, and 30 recruited from community) showed patients with higher scores on forgiveness-related variables (‘current level of forgiveness’ as measured by Enright Forgiveness Inventory and ‘forgiveness self efficacy’ as measured by the Forgiveness Self-Efficacy Scale) reported lower levels of pain, anger, and psychological distress. Patients who scored (Carson 2005) analysis revealed that “state anger largely mediated associations between forgiveness variables and sensory pain, whereas the association between current forgiveness and affective pain was mostly independent of state anger.”What is bitterness?When someone continues to hold on to unforgiveness, they can become what we would call “bitter.” Bitter people are exactly like that word describes—so steeped in resentment that they become unpalatable. Clues that someone may be bitter:Do they continually replay past hurts over and over? Do they hold onto the pain?Do they try to avoid someone? Do they quickly get angry with someone?Do they speak trashfully or verbally malign someone? Do they find that their bitterness is more associated with the proximity of the person who wronged them than the magnitude of the event?What percent of their emotional energy is spent on this topic? * Recurrent resentment affects all relationships and takes up room in one’s emotional life.What does research say about bitterness?Ten years or more after a divorce, ½ of women and ⅓ of men are still intensely angry at their former spouses, and anger becomes an ongoing, dominant presence in their children as well (Wallerstein). Forgiving people have been found to have a lower blood pressure at baseline. (Larsen 2012)“Recalled experiences of betrayal that were less forgiven were associated with greater cardiovascular reactivity as indexed by greater diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and rate-pressure product…higher trait forgiveness was negatively associated with lower resting blood pressure and better post-stress recovery.” (Lawler 2005 citing Lawler 2003)Those who measured high in hostility, 20-25 years later, had higher rates of heart disease (Shekelle 1983, Barefoot 1983).When discussing the narrative of injustice, those with an understanding of forgiveness showed less anger expressions (Tina Huang, “Cross Cultural and Real-Life Validation”).How can someone forgive?If the previous studies about the negative effects of not forgiving aren’t enough, let’s look at some of the positive effects of forgiving. Personal health results of forgiving:Changes anxiety into inner peace, reduces symptoms of depression, anger, and paranoia (Dr. R. C. Hunter, 1978).Genuine acts of forgiveness lead to overall improvement in the person’s emotional maturity and increases the capacities for courage, nurturance of others, and love (Dr. Morton Kaufman “The courage to forgive” 1984).Reduces fear. Impulses of anger and revenge subside and are replaced by more appropriate expressions of anger (Dr. Richard Fitzgibbons).Hypertension may be reduced (Huang 1990).Patients with fibromyalgia who were taught forgiveness education had a significant decrease in symptoms (Lee, 2014).Incest survivors showed significant improvement after a 1 year forgiveness education process (Robert Enright, 1994, 1995).A study that looked at 20 psychologically abused and divorced women, some who had remarried and some who had not. All participants scored above 41 on the Psychological Abuse Survey was considered indicative of a present and serious pattern of emotional abuse. Randomized between forgiveness therapy (FT: based on the Enright model) with an alternative treatment (AT: anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building). The study found that the FT group showed a greater improvement in forgiveness, self-esteem, state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, environmental mastery, finding meaning, post-traumatic stress symptoms all determined by pre-and post surveys and questionnaires. The FT group had an effect size of 1.79 and represents a shift from below normal levels to normative levels. (Reed 2006)Spiritual ConnectionSome patients highly value their higher power. You can ask them to turn to their spiritual power and ask for the grace to have the willingness to forgive. They can give the spiritual power the opportunity to work in their lives in that way. Some have had powerful forgiveness experiences with their higher power.Steps in the process of forgiveness: How can we help our patients forgive those who have wronged them? Sometimes our patients have experienced things that can hurt to even hear about. Helping them move from trauma and anger into a place of forgiveness so they can live a healthy emotional life can be difficult to navigate. But, it is a worthy journey to pursue. Here are the steps I walk through with my patients using a workbook sheets I have created. I have included a FREE DOWNLOADABLE PDF below that you can give to your patients to fill out. It walks them through the steps in detail, giving them a drawing to fill out and journaling exercises with specific questions to answer that will help them process their trauma and grief.
Download Free Patient Worksheet
Further Reading on Forgiveness:“Forgiveness is a Choice” EnrightBradley, L. A., McKendree-Smith, N. L., Alberts, K. R., Alarcón, G. S., Mountz, J. M., & Deutsch, G. (2000). Use of neuroimaging to understand abnormal pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia. Current Rheumatology Reports, 2, 141–148. Brand BL, Alexander PC. “Coping with incest: the relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest.” J Trauma Stress. (2003):185–93. Enright, R. D. Forgiveness is a choice. (2001) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Fernandez, Ephrem, and Dennis C. Turk. "The Scope and Significance of Anger in the Experience of Chronic Pain." Pain (1995) 61(2):165-75.Greenwood K, Thurston R, Rumble R, Waters S, Keefe F. Anger and persistent pain: Current status and future directions. Pain. (2003);103:1–5. Knight JR, Hugenberger GP. On Forgiveness. Southern Medical Journal. (2007). 100(4):420-421.Larsen BA, Darby RS, Harris CR, Nelkin DK, Milam PE, Christenfeld NJ. The immediate and delayed cardiovascular benefits of forgiving. Psychosom Med. (2012) Sep;74(7):745-50.Lawler, K. A., Jarred W. Y., Rachel L. Piferi, Rebecca L. Jobe, Kimberley A. E, and Warren H. J. The Unique Effects of Forgiveness on Health: An Exploration of Pathways. J Behav Med Journal of Behavioral Medicine (2005). 28(2): 157-67. Web.Lee YR, Enright RD. “A Forgiveness Intervention for Women With Fibromyalgia Who Were Abused in Childhood: A Pilot Study.” Sprituality in Clinical Practice. (2014). 1(3):203–217 Lichtenfeld S, Buechner VL, Maier MA, Fernandez-Capo M. Forgive and Forget: Differences between Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness.PLoS One. (2015) May 6;10(5):e0125561.Moons, Wesley G., Naomi I. Eisenberger, and Shelley E. Taylor. "Anger and Fear Responses to Stress Have Different Biological Profiles." Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (2010) 24(2):215-19. Muscatello MR, Bruno A, Scimeca G, Pandolfo G, Zoccali RA. “Role of negative affects in pathophysiology and clinical expression of irritable bowel syndrome.” World J Gastroenterol.2014;20:7570–7586. Okifuji A, Turk DC, Curran SL. Anger in chronic pain: investigations of anger targets and intensity. J Psychosom Res. 1999;47(1):1–12.Reed GL, Enright RD. The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress for Women After Spousal Emotional Abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. (2006). 74(5):920 –929.Schmidt S, Grossman P, Schwarzer B, Jena S, Naumann J, Walach H. “Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.” Pain. (2011).152(2):361–9.Strang S., Utikal V., Fischbacher U., Weber B., Falk A. “Neural correlates of receiving an apology and active forgiveness: an fMRI study.” PLoS ONE. 9:e87654 (2014). 10.137.White, JM. “Pleasure Into Pain: The consequences of long-term opioid use.” Addictive Behaviors. (2004). 29:(1311-1324).Winfield JB. Psychological determinants of fibromyalgia and related syndromes. Curr Rev Pain. 2000. 4(4):276-86.Witvliet CVO, Phipps KA, Feldman ME. Beckham JC. “Posttraumatic mental and physical health correlates of forgiveness and religious coping in military veterans.” J. Trauma Stress. (2004) 17:269–273.
On this week’s episode of the podcast, I talk about transference and countertransference. It’s the fourth episode in my four-part therapeutic alliance series where I discuss best practices on dealing with the doctor - patient relationship.
Here are the three previous episodes:Part 1 - IntroductionPart 2 - Logotherapy and MeaningPart 3 - What is empathy and how to improve itWhat is transference?Historically the term “transference” refers to the feelings, fantasies, beliefs, assumptions and experiences unconsciously displaced on the therapist that originate in the patients’ past relationships. More recently, transference is seen as the here and now, valid experience the patient has of the therapist.It is “a mixture of real characteristics of the therapist and aspects of the patient’s figures from the past—in effect, it’s a combination of old and new relationships.” (Gabbard)How does transference work? The patient’s early experiences develop organizing principles, constructing a framework for future interpersonal interactions. (Maybe their dad was an abuser, so they project that you will abuse them.) Transference is the continuing influence of these ways of organizing and giving meaning to experiences. They crystallized in the past, but they continue in an ongoing way in the here and now. The therapist’s actual behavior is always influencing the patient’s experience of the therapist because of this.When a patient visits a therapist, they seek a new developmentally needed experience, but they expect the old, repetitive experience. There is often misattunement to painful circumstances that can't be integrated into a person’s emotional world. For example—a child who can’t demonstrate his emotion in a way that his parents can handle causes the parents to move away from the child, creating distance. The child then subdues the emotion and creates a new “ideal self” so they can interact with others and no be rejected. The child then doesn’t know how to deal with strong emotion, even moving into adulthood. Unintegrated affects become lifelong emotional conflicts and vulnerabilities to traumatic states. To handle the difficult situation, they develop defense mechanisms. Those defenses against affects become necessary to maintain psychological organization. That “ideal self” will stay in place with others until you come along. If they see you as a safe person, they will express their emotions—anger and all—towards you. This is where it’s important to understand transference, and to be able to give your patient a safe place to express their emotions. When we understand transference is happening, we can listen from the patient's world, acknowledge their subjective perspective, resonate with them, look for their meanings, and form and alliance with the patient's expressed experience.Of course we must expect their hesitations to trust us, avoid us, have feelings of shame, guilt, and embarrassment...it is uncomfortable to share what one feels. Positive TransferenceNegative transference isn’t the only type of transference—there is also positive transference, where you remind the patient of a positive relationship they had, so they feel deeply connected to you. People with borderline personality disorder are very quick to attach, usually commenting that they have never felt so close to a therapist before. When someone does say very positive things to me, especially in the first few sessions, I let them know that it’s also okay to express negative feelings towards me as well. Transference-focused therapyKernberg wrote about transference focused psychotherapy. He hypothesized about the developmental birth of borderline personality disorder. By exploring and integrating these “split-off” cognitive-affective units of self and other representations, patients will be able to think more coherently and reflectively. They will be more realistic and accurate in their thoughts, feelings, intentions and desires about themselves and others. Integration will allow for increased modulation of affect, coherence of identity, increased capacity for intimacy, and improved functioning (Kernberg 2008).Levy (2006) studied transference focused psychotherapy (TFP) vs dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) vs supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. He found that TFP had increased secure attachments (whereas the other 2 did not change it), with increased narrative coherence. It also improved reflective function—the ability to mentalize the thoughts, feelings, goals of another person. What are some common transferences? Sibling rivalry Competitiveness, comparing, jealousy.MaternalPossibly see you as nurturing or abusive.PaternalPossibly wants you to solve their problems, asks for direct advice. GodWhere they want you to be all powerful or omnipotent. EroticOne of their primary attachment figures might have sexualized them, so they might yearn for erotic attention and affection. Perhaps a patient falls in love with you, or someone similar physically to you.Idealizing or contemptuousThey could view you as a savior, or feel contemptuous to you. Passively hoping for a miracleA person prone not to trust will view the therapist with suspicionA person who struggles with anger will have anger towards the therapistTransferences are influenced by age, gender, clothing, bodily attributes, context, vocabulary & choice of words, personality characteristicsBe a certain way to have you stay connected with them How do deal with transference in therapy:Here is the main, overarching principle when dealing with transference: have empathy. Be empathic. Be open to their feedback. Don’t take things personally. Be connected with your patient. Developing a therapeutic alliance requires you being connected, and being connected requires you to allow your patient to explore their emotional world with you. That requires psychological safety. When you are a safe place, they will hopefully be able to connect, and you can help them identify their transferences so they have a chance at developing healthy relationships in the future without bringing their past with them.If my patient had a previous therapist, I always ask them, “What went well and what did not go well in your past therapy relationship?”Other questions I ask are:“How would you like your past therapy to have been different?”“When you felt disappointed and misunderstood, were you able to share that feeling with your therapist?”“In what ways would you like your relationship with me to be like your experience with your last therapist?”“What are some of your worries about what you might experience in your treatment with me?” When I can tell they don’t want to come to therapy. I normalize their feelings so they feel like they can share with me. “This is a laboratory where we look at what goes on between us, and when you tell me you are mad at me, I am going to be excited about your sharing your feelings, good or bad.”“What are you feeling about leaving me for the day?”“What did you do when you were young and something bad happened to you?”“Go to mom? Go to Dad? Go out alone?”“When you looked for help how were you responded to?”“Were you comforted? Did it help?” “How did it make you feel when you wanted somebody to help your upsetness?”“I want to be with you in this moment of sadness and loss.”When you sense an empathic strain, mending it is priority number 1. I might say, “Help me understand what I might not have understood here.” Or, “If I said something that makes you feel worse about yourself then let’s talk about it now.” Try to prevent an empathic strain from progressing to an empathic rupture in your relationship by catching the strains early on.Here are a few tips to handle when patients exhibit strong emotions towards you:Be enthusiastic and curious about patients’ experiences when coping with intense feelings. Be particularly encouraging about them discussing their feelings, and especially their feelings towards you. Whereas in the past there might not have been a safe place to get angry, they are entitled to want to have a different experience with you. Say explicitly that they are allowed to have all of their feelings (including loving and hating) in the therapy relationship and that they will be dealt with in words and not in actions. Convey to them that they can feel secure and accepted and not reproached or rejected, even if they have negative feedback or feelings towards you. You can work cooperatively to help them process and modulate their emotions.You can explore together what actions might be appropriate for them when the flooding feelings erupt and they are unsure about what might happen as consequences.Complicated emotions are inevitable: the opportunity we offer is to enhance ways of coping with desirable as well as disruptive emotions. Emotions may be congruent with experiences in the past, but not necessarily appropriate in the present context in which they recur.When we are young, we are unable to metabolize emotions correctly, especially in the face of trauma or an unsafe caregiver. When we age, we transfer those patterns of belief onto every other relationship in our life, trying to recreate that. When you, as a therapist, offer a safe environment for a patient to experience those strong emotions, you are helping them rewire their belief system around those emotions. It allows them to interact with every other person in a new way. Countertransference:The original and narrower definition of countertransference centered around the therapist unconsciously experiencing the patient as someone from their past (similar to transference). Now, countertransference is seen as the therapists’ total reaction to the patient.First, it’s important to note that therapists need to practice what they preach: do the work in your own therapy so you can identify your own transferences. The less clouded your vision is of what’s happening in sessions, the better. For example, one therapist saw nearly every patient as a trauma victim, and occasionally led them to believe they’d been traumatized as well in the same way. Countertransference is seen as a source of important information about the patient: it can be a major diagnostic and therapeutic tool. “Countertransference is an instrument of research into the patient’s unconscious.” (Paula Heimann)Now it is seen as a jointly created reaction in the clinician (some reactions from the therapist's past, some induced by the client's behavior).There are continuously fluctuating levels of influencing the transference and countertransference by contributions from both patient and therapist during all their interactions. My mentor, Dr. Tarr, said, "To every relationship we bring learned expectations from past encounters.” One way to handle countertransference to make sure you are coming from a healthy place is to use your left brain to integrate with, and therefore dampen, the right brain. Learn from what you are feeling during the session, but observe yourself with curiosity. Another form of possible transference is sexual attraction towards a patient. Studies show that 85% of male therapists at some point have erotic arousal towards a female patients. Obviously, it is important to not act on or tell your patient about those feelings. You should also allow yourself to mirror the patient’s emotions, as to follow the patient’s emotional movements and unconscious content. Before a patient enters the room, check in with yourself. How are you feeling? What are you feeling? Here is a checklist I like to use before my sessions with patients. It is based on 7 basic emotions: DisgustI dislike him/her. I feel repulsed by him/her.AttractionI have compassion for the patient.If they were not my patient I would want to date him/her.I feel sexually attracted to him/her.If he/she were not my patient I would want to be their friend.I look forward to sessions with him/her. I wish I could give him/her what others never could, protect him/her like no one could...I feel I understand him/her. I have warm, almost parental feelings towards him/her.I self-disclose more about my personal life with him/her more than with other patients.SadnessI wish I had never taken the patient on...I feel sadness/depression in sessions with him/her.I feel guilty about my feelings towards him/her.I feel guilty when she/he is distressed or deteriorates, as if I must be somehow responsible. AngryI feel dismissed or devalued.I feel annoyed in sessions with him/her.I feel criticized in sessions with him/her.I feel angry with him/her.I feel anger at people in his/her life.I feel competitive with him/her.I feel used or manipulated by him/her. I have to stop myself from being aggressive or critical with him/her.I feel pushed to set firm limits with him/her.I feel resentful working with him/her.Dissociation/Shut DownI feel confused in sessions. I am overwhelmed by strong emotions with him/her.I feel hopeless working with him/her.I feel like my hands are being tied or that I have been put in an impossible bind.Sensorium issueI feel bored in sessions with him/her.My mind wanders to things other than what he/she is talking about.I feel sleepy when talking with him/her. Fear/AnxietyI feel anxious/frightened working with him/her.I fear I am failing to help him/her.His/her sexual feelings towards me make me anxious or uncomfortable.I fear being incompetent or inadequate to help him/herAfter treatment ends I worry about him/her more then most patients.It is completely normal to have feelings—both good and bad—towards patients. We are humans, not robots! Sometimes it might seem like you’re supposed to be perfect or void of feelings towards your patient, but that doesn’t allow a living, growing, healthy therapeutic alliance towards them. The important thing is to notice how you feel, without self judgement. Then, deal with those feelings in a healthy manner, like through seeking out your own therapy, getting a mentor, etc. However, sometimes merely allowing yourself to notice the feelings and owning up to the feeling of anger, attraction, boredom, or sadness, is enough to dissipate it. It’s easy to be busy after a session. It’s better to practice noting your feelings. After all, how can we help our patients express and normalize their feelings if we cannot do it for ourselves? ConclusionIf you are a mental health professional, I would love for this to be your community. We are in these trenches together, and it’s pretty common for therapists to feel totally exhausted and burned out from all of the countertransference. I hope that through this community, we can develop better practices, help each other, and grow together. If any of you have any questions or listen to the podcast, I’m active on social media. I’d welcome any feedback you have. My social handles are: Instagram @Dr.DavidPuder, Facebook: @DrDavidPuder, or Twitter @DavidPuder
Reducing Inpatient Violence in a Psychiatric Hospital
Violent aggression in the inpatient psychiatric setting has developed into an important issue that negatively affects patients and staff. There are some simple and surprising treatments different clinics are taking to prevent violent aggression. It’s time we paid attention to this issue so we can prevent injury of both patients and hospital staff.
On this week’s episode of the podcast, I am joined by Dr. Carolina Osorio, a geriatric psychiatrist (and one of my favorite people). After she finished her psychiatry residency, she also went on to finish a fellowship in geriatric psychiatry to take care of her favorite people. Dr. Osorio runs a special program that treats elderly people with depression and anxiety.
Mental health in the elderlySylvia Yu (MS3), David Puder, M.D.As many people age, their health declines, and their needs increase. At the same time, we can experience loss of spouses because of aging, loss of friends and fear of death. We can lose eyesight, hearing, and subsequently, our drivers licenses and autonomy. It can be an incredibly stressful and lonely time. At this time in history, like no other time before, we are experiencing a wave of baby boomers that will put a new strain on our already waning mental health facilities. Baby boomers are also more likely to stigmatize using mental health services. Dr. Osario noticed these problems and she took steps to create a program that is helping her local aging population in a way that makes them feel comfortable.If you are a primary care physician, psychiatrist, or a family member that is a caretaker for the elderly, this article will have takeaways from Dr. Osorio’s program that can help clarify how we can best help the aging population. When Dr. Osorio was a resident, she noticed that in mixed-age groups, older adults didn’t get the treatment that they needed. A general outpatient partial program wasn’t benefiting them, and sometimes it would make them worse because older adults tend to become parents to their younger peers in their group. She noticed that the older adults ended up taking care of their younger counterparts and not getting the individualized help they needed.She started building a program to help the elderly in the way that they needed to be helped—through diet, exercise, therapy, medication management and stress reduction. Medically, older adults have comorbidities, or more than one medical issue that needs to be treated. Because of this, having a geriatric therapist, group therapy session, or a geriatric mental health program can keep them happier, healthier and independent for longer. If you run an outpatient group for the elderly, if you’re suggesting one for your patient, or if you are looking for one for an elderly friend or relative, here are a few things to consider: Small groups - It takes longer to express their stories, to receive feedback, and to cognitively process information. Because of this, there should be no more than 8 participants in any one session. Medication support/management/consultation - Often, elderly people are on too many medications, and this could be slowing them down physically, causing mental decline, and speeding up the aging process. We will make suggestions below on how medications can be managed. Evidence-based therapies - A good outpatient elderly care program will also include evidence-based therapies (Bartels, 2003) to help the patients cope with their depression and anxiety, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), problem solving (Malhouff, 2007), reminiscence therapy (Elias, 2015), nutrition education, and medication education. Below, we will go into these therapies and why they are helpful. Medications for aging adultsBenzodiazepinesUnfortunately, many elderly patients are prescribed benzodiazepines—drugs used to treat anxiety. Many primary care doctors have busy schedules with short appointment times. When the patient has hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis, mental health can take a back seat to managing the more urgent health issues. The primary care doctor will usually just prescribe a benzodiazepine to deal with the anxiety issues.There are several problems with giving benzodiazepines to the elderly. With time, the body gets used to the benzodiazepine, and the doctor starts to increase the dose. Then, the patient typically becomes even more depressed, more lethargic. This, in turn, increases other health issues. That is why special consideration should be given when prescribing “benzos” to the elderly. It is also why Dr. Osorio’s goal in her outpatient program is to taper them off of their benzodiazepine medications. She says many of the patients she sees have been on them for 20-30 years. Tapering a patient off of a benzo should be done very, very slowly in order to avoid delirium or worsening of anxiety. For example, if the patient is on 4mg of Xanax a day, Dr. Osario will convert them to Klonopin. Because of the half-life of the medication, the patient will have fewer symptoms of withdrawal when they start coming off of it. Then, she would reduce the dosage to 3mg of Klonopin over the next six months to a year.Anticholinergic medicationsAs we age, our brain changes and there are parts of the brain that are going to have synapses that decrease. Acetylcholine actually decreases with age. But, if you add a medication that is anticholinergic, you are putting a bigger burden into that normal process. Then, there can be bad side effects such as confusion and dementia.Because of that, Dr. Osorio says she will typically taper off or replace any medication with an anticholinergic burden. For example, the antidepressant Paroxetine is a no-go drug in the elderly population because it is very anticholinergic. The tricyclic antidepressants are also very anticholinergic. Nortriptyline, however, is one that Dr. Osorio would prescribe because it has much less of the anticholinergic burden at lower doses. (I will put a list up on my website in my resource library of the different medications that are anticholinergic. Along with “Beers list,” medications that are contraindicated in older adults.) LithiumPhysicians don't often think about lithium. Lithium is brain-protective (Forlenza, 2014). It has many functions that are very healthy and it actually produces neurogenesis in some patients. Consider, if you have a patient on an SSRI that isn’t responding how you’d like, adding a tiny dose of lithium (usually about 150-300mg).Medication management for the elderlyPsychiatrists must work very closely with the patient’s primary care doctors. There are primary care doctors who also have a fellowship in geriatrics, but most do not have the specialized training needed to maximize mental health and minimize side effects. Sometimes it is helpful to have a conversation on behalf of the patient and guide them in certain medications. Every doctor should think about the whole body in general, and working with a primary care doctor can help psychiatrists do that. A lot of older adults start feeling better when you start decreasing their meds. This indicates they were just depressed and did not have Major Depressive Disorder that required a heavy load of medications to manage it. It also shows that the depression was a side effect of medications. That, really, is the first thing you want to think about when you have a new patient and you see a very large list of medications that they are taking—are the symptoms because of the medication or is the medication helping alleviate symptoms? Should they be taking every single medication on the list? There are a couple of studies that have talked about serotonin in older, depressed patients and how that can delay the progression of mild cognitive impairment of Alzheimer’s (Smith, 2017). One study showed that SSRIs are the best medications for it—Wellbutrin, SNRIs, tricyclics. There is actually another study done with older adults who had mild cognitive impairment and a history of depression (Bartels, 2018). Those who were taking SSRIs delayed progression of mild cognitive impairment by three years. But, in those patients who were put on another type of antidepressant, the progression was faster.However, it is important to note that putting an elderly patient on an SSRI does not deal with the root of the issue. Therapy in conjunction with medication has been shown to be more powerful and sometimes eliminate the need for medication. If the patient is lonely, eating poorly, and has no life activities to look forward to, changing those factors can decrease the need for medication. Always consider therapy in addition to any psychiatric medication. No matter what you prescribe, the patients have to take the medication for it to be helpful. Make sure to write down the medication, dosage, and times in clear language. Help the elderly patient understand what to take and when. When necessary, get helpful family members involved to remind the patient as well. Therapy for the elderlyAnother component of aging healthfully is receiving therapy. The cognitive load of aging alone, including the sum total of traumatic experiences, is often enough to require therapy to help with life transitions. There are many forms of therapy available that can help the elderly experience a fuller life, deal with trauma safely, manage their depression and anxiety, and even stay mentally sharper for longer. Problem solving therapy for the elderlyProblem-solving therapy is a way of teaching the elderly how to find ways to solve the particular problems that are unique to them. These problems cause anxiety and depression, so teaching them how to think about them, how to solve problems themselves, can give them a sense of autonomy and control. Sometimes, in therapy, you cannot solve the actual problem, per se, but the process of working through it together gives them different options that they can utilize if their anxiety starts to spike when they are alone. For example, one elderly lady Dr. Osorio works with struggles with terrible anxiety. She recently broke her arm. She couldn’t clean her home, and her family would come over to help. She felt like a burden to them and was very anxious about this. During problem solving therapy, they made a list of all of the things that needed to be done around the house, and then they marked the three things she could do, even with her broken arm, to help. She felt better knowing she could help her family while they were helping her. Even though we couldn’t fix the problem, we made it manageable, and gave her some autonomy back. Reminiscence therapy for the elderly In reminiscence therapy, you focus on reminiscing about good things. For example, Dr. Osorio will bring her elderly patients a picture of a turkey. She will ask them what it reminds them of. Everyone starts talking about Thanksgiving with their families. They discuss memories, smells, and they walk through the senses of what it was like for them at a happy time. This alone starts to fire up positive emotions in their brains and can change their moods instantly. The cool thing about reminiscence therapy is that it even works with patients who have dementia, because their long-term memory is pretty solid. They can dip into their past and they immediately start brightening up. Their whole countenance changes. It is a simple therapy to use, and it can be very helpful when dealing with depressed patients. They often feel alone, but when they begin to talk about the good times and share memories, it connects them to others in their group, and helps them make positive social connections. Cognitive behavioral therapy for the elderlyThere are also behavioral activations we can implement to help the elderly. The elderly patient typically has a hard time with scheduling routines. As their therapist, it can be helpful to get them to schedule a solid routine they can stick with because we have to break the cycle of depression and anxiety. For example, if you're depressed, you want to be in bed, you stay in bed, you get more depressed. This is damaging to an elderly person because it is much harder to get them to start scheduling and moving around again once they slow down. Activating their schedule can be a first step in keeping them independent for longer. For elderly cognitive behavioral therapy, first, we do education on this process and then start helping them find ways in which they can break that lethargic routine. We want to help them choose an activity that they want to do so that it’s easier to break that cycle. Maybe that is going every Sunday to visit their grandkids. Maybe they can join a card game club, join a church, a quilting group, a storytelling group or take a community educational class. That one simple thing can break their cycle of depression, ease loneliness, and keep them engaged for longer. Aging and brain healthThe evidence for maintaining brain health while aging says there are several things we can do to stay healthy: physical activity, socialization, nutrition and stress management. Physical exerciseDr. Osorio’s favorite exercise to recommend for the elderly is tai chi. Tai chi decreases the risks of falls in older adults (Lomas-Vega, 2017). There are even insurances that are starting to pay for tai chi for older adults because it is cheaper than fixing a broken hip. It’s a very easy, very smooth exercise. For the wheelchair-bound, she recommends chair exercises. A physical therapist can help the patient move their arms, their torso, their necks. Maybe some of them can lift their legs from the knee up. Even if they can’t, they can still get a good exercise in and get some positive movement going. When the elderly patient is doing really well in exercise they can start to add weights. Weights are very important because when they use weights their muscles are contracting and they’re positively impacting those bones. This is a good way to decrease osteoporosis. Even with the elderly, muscles can get stronger and their strength can increase. Studies even show that exercise in the elderly pretty much halts the dementia progression. SocializationSocialization is also very important. One study showed that the higher risk factor for morbidity and mortality was related to isolation (Holt-Lunstad, 2015). Isolation is actually toxic for our brains. If someone is home alone, they will usually die faster. Being with friends and family and maintaining a social life helps the brain because it uses visuospatial skills, social skills and cognition. A simple conversation, a regular visit with a loved one or a new person can help an elderly person maintain positive brain health. Human connection is necessary throughout all of life, and to have close, connected friends makes a huge difference. As part of her program, Dr. Osorio notices if they're having issues making friends, and she helps them create some behavioral activation to get them to places where there is a potential of making friends. NutritionAs far as nutrition goes, we have to take into account that the elderly population is pretty diverse. There are 60 year olds who are very fragile because of many health problems and there are 90 year olds who are pretty healthy. Dr. Osorio personally recommends the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet is a diet that consists of grains, fish, olive oil, avocado, fruits and vegetables. The Mediterranean diet offers omega-3 fatty acids in the fish, high poly and monounsaturated fats in the olive oil and in the nuts. There is also a lower amount of sugar then the average American diet. If elderly patients are struggling with making the big change in their diets, it’s best to merely suggest they don’t consume processed foods. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or progressing to Alzheimer disease from MCI (Scarmeas, 2009). This year it was the number one diet recommended by the medical field. Stress managementStress reduction also adds to positive brain health. Mindfulness and visualization are both helpful practices to reduce stress. Stress reduction is not a one-time fix all. It is something that has to be practiced every single day in order to work. Ask the patient to download a meditation app if they are technologically savvy, or even join a meditation group for seniors to increase their socialization. If neither of those works, getting them to quietly rest and close their eyes for even five minutes with the intention of relaxing, not just to nap or sleep, can have positive benefits. ConclusionIf you work with the elderly, or know someone who is elderly, if they struggle with mental health issues such as anxiety and depression, or have comorbidity with other health issues, consider suggesting an outpatient group therapy for the elderly. It can be extremely helpful when paired with nutrition, exercise, and a cohesive plan with their primary care physician. Other episodes I HIGHLY recommend if you are interested in treating elderly people:Sensorium: Total Brain Function Optimization Part 1Psychiatric Approach to Delirium with Dr. Timothy LeeQuestions, comments, thoughts? Please comment on the picture that corresponds to this post on my instagram: @Dr.DavidPuder
The Dark Triad (Psychopathy, Narcissism, Machiavellianism), sexually violent predators, Ted Bundy, and porn.
Ted Bundy came off as friendly and charming, described as “one of us.” A friend of his from Washington State even said, “He’s the kind of person you’d want your sister to marry.” As disturbing as this is, it is a common trait of psychopathic antisocial behavior.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticOn this week’s episode of the podcast, I interview Dr. Michael Cummings. Dr. Cummings works at a state psychiatric hospital for the criminally insane, so he has extensive experience in treating patients for aggression and violence.
The different types of aggression The words “aggression” and “violence” are sometimes used synonymously, but in reality, aggression can be physical or non-physical, and directed either against others or oneself. Violence is more of a use of force with an intent to inflict damage. One study looked at the principle types of aggression and violence that occur in psychiatric patients, and broke it down into three categories:Impulsive violence (the most common category) Predatory violence (purposeful and planned violence) Psychotically-driven violence (least common) Within 5 state hospitals, 88 chronically or persistently violent patients with 839 assaults, the rate of impulsive violence was 54%, and predatory violence was 29%. Psychotically driven patients logged 17% of total violence (Meyers, M. Cummings et al., 2013). Studies show psychotically driven violence decreases the longer the patients are in care and medicated. Predatory ViolencePredatory violence is what people typically think of when they think of psychopathy, or someone with antisocial personality disorder. It is violence with a purpose, and that purpose is usually to gain something. They typically show a lack of fear and very little autonomic arousal even when they are being violent. The amygdala and the temporal lobe is underactive and the communication between them has a weak signal. People with predatory violence also have lower affective empathy. Some of the early research done by Adrian Reign measured blood pressure, galvanic skin response and heart rate when showing neutral, frightening or peaceful pictures to children. Of those who lacked effective response or autonomic response to those pictures, 75% percent of those individuals became violent criminals by age 18. Interestingly, 25% of them became prosocial and entered jobs as police officers, bomb disposal experts, and so forth. True psychopaths are a very tiny part of the population. About 2% of women score significantly on the psychopathy checklist. About 2-4% of men have elevated scores on the psychopathy checklist. Not all of those individuals, however, are violent, and many persons who are psychopathic are more interested in profit. Some become the crime bosses (not actually doing the violence themselves) and others end up in politics. Impulsive violenceImpulsive violence or aggression is actually the most common, and in many ways the most complex, form of violence that occurs in a variety of mental illnesses, including:psychosismood disorders personality disorders anxiety disorders PTSD It is essentially an imbalance in impulse generation and a failure of the prefrontal cortex to evaluate the impulse and weigh the consequences. All of us generate a variety of impulses, some good and some bad, including impulses driven by our irritability and anger.In predatory aggression there is increased medial prefrontal cortex activity whereas in reactive aggression there is decreased activity.What can cause impulsive violence to be an issue:Traumatic brain injurySome of the dementias including frontotemporal dementiasAnoxic brain injuryIntellectual disabilityPersonality disordersDrugs Drug detoxPsychotic aggression Psychotically driven aggression is most often a result of delusional ideation or the belief the person holds that they are in some way being persecuted and being taken advantage of. Psychotic or mentally ill people do have an increased rate of violence compared to the general population. The mentally ill are responsible for around 5% violent crimes, meaning non mentally ill people are responsible for 95%. Psychotic Delusions leading to violenceOnes study looking specifically at the first episodes of psychosis found that in about 458 patients, anger was associated with certain types of delusions that led to the violence (Coid, 2013).The underpinnings of delusion-driven violence usually stems from when people have delusional beliefs that are persecutory in nature. When they believe that someone is out to get them, it removes inhibitions against acting out violently, because that person’s view is they are protecting themselves. Typically, this violence comes from the belief they are being spied on or persecuted.Persecutory delusions associated with a command hallucination is a particularly potent precursor to violent behavior. If your delusion tells you your neighbor is the devil, and your command auditory hallucination is that God is telling you to “kill him and save the world from destruction” it can lead to a very bad outcome. IQ and aggression There is also an association between the IQ and aggression (Huesmann, 1987). A recent study in state hospitals looked at what correlated with persisting violence, and across all of the types of violent behavior, cognitive deficits (particularly impairments and executive functioning) were associated with elevated rates of violence. Men are more violent than womenMen are likely more violent than women because they have historically been the hunters, which involves violence. Women were gatherers more often than not, and consequently, men have a standing evolutionary tendency toward more frequent use of violence. Women can be violent, but if you look at the rates of violence between men and women, men are clearly more violent. The purpose of aggression You could say the healthiest outcome for our aggressive and violent impulses is when we use our innate ability to be aggressive to engage in things like a healthy competition. Or even to provide motivation and drive to achieve. In the beginning, humanity formed tribes, and aggression allowed someone to climb up the dominance hierarchy within the tribe. It also allowed them to protect themselves from other tribes. It was basic for survival. If we look at animal psychology, there is a lot we can learn about the aggression and dominance hierarchy, like how apes interact with each other, or form alliances. As a way of creating alliances, often an alpha ape will groom other males. The violence comes out when the clans come against each other. When one ape is wandering from its clan, two apes from another clan may attack one single ape viciously. In other circumstances, if a dominant ape is taken away from his clan for a couple of days and brought back into the clan, a couple of other apes may have formed a new alliance against the prior leader and attack him. As human beings, we are also like this. Many of our social interactions and group structures have the same kinds of alliances and effects of absence can play out similarly. Of course as humans, we do have higher verbal centers, and philosophy or spirituality, that allows an individual to be less violent and to transcend their base instincts. Aggression and autism People with intellectual challenges most often exhibit impulsive violence, particularly those on the autistic spectrum. The person may have a greater difficulty processing or understanding their own emotions if there are significant intellectual deficits. They may also have elements of not being able to judge a response or to moderate a response. The general pathophysiology of the autistic spectrum disorder suggests that the connections between neurons and the autistic brain is not what it should be, and they are not differentiated so that information processing can be fragmented. Treatment of aggression Psychotic aggression treatmentTreating with an antipsychotic medication is helpful and decreases violent episodes. In one study, clozapine helped psychotic aggressive patients with executive dysfunction more, compared to using haldol or olanzapine (Krakowski, 2011). Psychopathic aggression treatmentA predatory-violent individual needs to be contained in prison if there is a demonstrated past of persistent violence. There is evidence that by enhancing intellectual empathy, psychopaths will be less violent. There is also interesting research that by giving oxytocin, the hormone that increases affiliation and collaboration, may have a moderating effect on some psychopathic individuals. However, in terms of psychopharmacology, we don’t have any specific medications to control that behavior. Some medications, such as clozapine, can affect the underlying issues behind psychotic behavior and thereby reduce it, but there is no direct treatment for psychopathic violence pharmacologically. Impulsive aggression treatmentDr. Cummings discussed the use of Mood stabilizers helping in persons with borderline personality disorder, SSRIs and trazodone helping in dementing illness in the elderly and alpha 2 agonists in people with things like autism or TBI. Alpha 2 agonists (clonidine) can fool the brain stem into thinking enough norepinephrine has been released, then less norepinephrine is secreted, making the brain stem calm down.Essentially, in an emotional disorder, if you change the affective (limbic) tone, you can decrease the likelihood of emotionally reactive aggression, for example, by using mood stabilizers lithium and divalproex. Using an antipsychotic, and not just a mood stabilizer, doesn’t show any benefit for traumatic brain injury patients. Antipsychotics have been used for people with autism spectrum disorder, and some evidence shows that drugs like risperidone can be helpful to control outburst issues. If there is evidence of sexual aggression (or aggression occurring at women after puberty), using an GnRH agonist—antiandrogen treatment—can sometimes be necessary).Psychotherapy for aggressionThere have been a number of anger management therapies that have been used over time. Therapists can help people be aware of their anger and manage their impulses, or push their anger and aggression toward a more prosocial response. For people with borderline personality disorder, dialectical behavioral therapy, mentalization based therapy or transference therapy are important. For schizophrenic patients, a good therapeutic alliance is important to create medication compliance. I have touched on how to process anger in my microexpression series and will have future episodes focusing more on the psychotherapy approaches to anger. Overall in therapy, we must assume that our patients will lie to us sometimes because they are afraid, and double check to insure they are following our prescribed protocol. We must also work hard to build trust and a therapeutic alliance. Final ThoughtsViolence and aggression deserve much more attention as a specialty than we have given it in the past. It is a major burden for family members and friends. Please submit any questions you have and we will submit them to Dr. Cummings and to answer. (In the podcast details about specific medications are discussed for psychiatrists who are interested in advanced psychopharmacology.)Further reading: Link to Ideal blood levels are found in Resource Library“California State Hospital Violence Assessment and Treatment (Cal-VAT) guidelines”
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What is empathy? Empathy is the ability to understand another’s state of mind or emotions. It is also is being able to feel, understand and share with someone else in what they are saying, their meaning of life, their motivations and values.In research there are 3 types of empathy that are commonly described: cognitive, affective, and compassionate. Cognitive empathy Cognitive empathy is also known as perspective taking, and it can help someone understand another’s personal experience. It also tends to reduce interpersonal aggression. Cognitive empathy is exactly what it sounds like—cognitively understanding someone’s situation, emotions, and motivations. When we understand someone else, we are more likely to view their behavior as similar to our own. One study of Asperger syndrome showed they had lower cognitive empathy but NOT affective empathy. (Dziobek, 2008)Affective empathy Affective empathy is about a shared emotional experience, one of feeling together. It uses the mirror neuron system, which I will discuss later on in the article. Affective empathy forms powerful emotional relationships.Boys with higher aggression had ½ the affective empathy, but the same level of cognitive empathy, as the non aggressive control group (Schechtman, 2002) Compassionate empathyThe third form of empathy is compassionate empathy, which is also called empathic motivation, prosocial concern, or sympathy. This is when you feel moved to help another from how to experience their reality. The science of empathyMirror Neurons are sharing neuronsOur brain has neurons solely designed to mirror other people. From birth, when we focus on another's movements, emotions and intentions, our brain lights up automatically, and largely unconsciously, around 10% the same way. Our own body-state can be derived from someone else outside of us. We can therefore understand and map out the mind of others by placing ourselves in a comparable body state. This process is important for empathy, intuition, transference, countertransference, enactment, projection, internalization and intersubjectivity. The discovery of mirror neurons:In 1992, while studying a monkey's brain with electrodes attached to the motor area (the area that lights up when movements by the body are made), researchers accidentally discovered that not only would the neurons become activated by the monkey reaching out to pick up a piece of food, but also when the researchers made a similar movement. Later, the same team published a paper that showed that there were mirror neurons responding to mouth actions and facial expressions. Further studies confirmed that around 10% of neurons in certain areas of a monkey's brain had mirror abilities. Later, these studies were expanded to humans. Current research:A recent study summarizing the data of 125 fMRI studies of humans (brain imaging that shows what is active), found that there were many areas of the brain with this capacity. (Molenberghs, 2012) Beyond seeing actions performed by others and having them represented in our brain, there are 3 other areas of the brain that are activated in a similar fashion: Ever wonder why watching people embrace enthusiastically at an airport is fun? When you observe someone being touched, a similar area in your brain (the secondary somatosensory cortex) activates in a similar way as the person being touched. (Keysers, 2004) When you only hear something, like someone cracking open a peanut, how do you know what is occurring? Another study showed that there was a similar brain circuit firing in both doing the action and hearing it, and just hearing it. This study also showed that those with higher scores on perspective taking (ability to slip into another's shoes) had stronger activation of mirror areas! (Gazzola, 2006) When we watch someone grieve at a funeral, ever wonder why we feel their sadness? When you feel emotion, you experience the emotion in your brain, like they are to a lesser extent. (Gaag, 2007)When normal college students looked at photographs depicting emotions, out of their awareness their own face muscles depicted the same emotion on an EMG. “We are hard-wired to feel what other experience as if it were happening to us.” (Marco Lacoboni)We used to say, metaphorically, that ‘I can feel another’s pain.’ But now we know that my mirror neurons can literally feel your pain. “Mirror neurons dissolve the barrier between you and someone else.” (Vilayanur Ramachandran)Now researchers are saying that the mirror neuron system is involved with: Understanding another's actions and intentionsNeural basis for the human capacity of empathyLearning new skills by imitation and rehearsing Non-empathic types—the Dark TriadThe “Dark Triad” refers to three types of disorders that cause people to have low empathy for others. The big common denominator for these people is a deficit in affective empathy, but after matching for primary psychopathy, the others are no longer predictors of low affective empathy (Wai 2012). The Dark Triad consists of: narcissists, Machiavellians and psychopaths. People who have narcissistic traits and machiavellian traits often have some primary psychopathy traits as well. Individuals high in narcissism had positive feelings when looking at sad faces and were accurate at recognizing anger (higher cognitive empathy may be bias at grandiose self reporting). Individuals higher in primary psychopathy (they can usually maintain cool composure and carefully execute planned behaviors with a lack of morality, whereas those with secondary psychopathy respond to their negative emotion when they harm others) felt positive when looking at sad, angry or fearful images and more negative when looking at happy images, and were rather inaccurate at identifying all emotions. Machiavellians felt negatively with happy images and positively with sad images, while they tended to inaccurately identify happy or sad emotions.Empathy and the medical fieldStudies show that empathy declines in third year of medical school (both for men and women, but women are higher in empathy in general) (Hojat, 2009) but that doctors can also increase their empathy through certain practices. (Riess, 2012)In a study of 20,961 patients, primary care providers with high empathy have been shown to have lower rates of metabolic complications compared to moderate to low scores (4.0 per 1,000 patients vs 7.1 and 6.5 respectively) (Canale, 2012). There have been many studies that show both cognitive and affective empathies ability to change patient care when high and low empathy are demonstrated. For example, there is a correlation to a doctor’s ability to more accurately diagnose depression and anxiety, understanding interactions, more positive patient outcomes, increased therapeutic alliance, more patient satisfaction, and fewer malpractice claims. Doctors who showed higher empathy were more likely to have their HIV patients take their medications (Flichinger 2015). Research on “Therapist Effect”Some doctors or therapists have better outcomes. Empathy seems to be important in therapist effectiveness and can be increased. Different studies show outcomes vary between patients, of which 5-12% can be attributed to a particular therapist. One study of 91 therapists over 2.5 years: the best therapist showed a change of 10 times the average mean, the worst showed the an average increase in symptoms. (Okiishi, 2003)Higher interpersonal skills has been linked to better outcomes when studying therapist effect. (Anderson, 2009)Higher-empathy therapists have higher success regardless of theoretical orientation. Lower-empathy therapists linked to higher dropout rates, relapse rates, and weaker therapeutic alliance. Empathy was shown to have an effect size of 1.22-1.43 when independent observers rated empathy for substance use outcomes. (Moyers, 2013)In a big study on therapist effect (69 therapists, 4,580 patients), they found that years of experience, gender, age, profession, highest qualifications, caseload, degree of theoretical integration did not predict outcome. The amount of time spent targeting improving specific skills and reviewing therapy recordings predicted client outcome. Can we improve our empathy? Studies show that we can. Here are some things that can improve your ability to empathize:Optimize your sensorium—keep yourself healthy. When you are tired, hungry, chronically stressed and with poor focus, it will be harder to enter into the experience of another. Try to understand the person’s emotions that you are with.A study showed by trying to pay attention to emotion mimicry was increased (linked to affective empathy)Read fiction (Bal, 2013) allow yourself to be transported into the book. Do not play violent video games (Anderson, 2010)Work through our “countertransference”Talk through difficult situationsPatients have different ways of relating—learning to understand others, to see their way of being as “adaptive,” can be empathy promoting. Learning to read emotions and body language more accurately Learning to accept feedbackCalming your own hyperarousal through practices like mindfulnessTuning your mirror neuronsNoticing when connection or disconnection is occurringPractice empathy towards viewpoints that are not your ownBecoming mindful of the emotion, the distress, the meaning behind the distressCan therapists lose our empathy?Studies show we can experience empathic strain and rupture. Empathic failure may lead to aggression. It is hard to empathize when we feel subjected to powerful influences from patients: complaints, requests, accusations, subtle seductions, bits of blackmail, challenges. Throughout history, rulers have decreased empathy in their warriors and people by stirring up disgust towards those they seek to kill. We are more likely to empathize with those we interact with frequently, find similar to us, or find thoughtful and kind. We need to humanize people’s actions and see them like us, to not lose the part of us that could consider that we too could be in their situation.Consider the stages of empathy:I think of empathy in terms of 3 categories: the moment to moment emotional experience, the meaning and context of the emotion in their life, and the subjective experience evoked and created by the unique connection I am having in the here and now with the person. Level 1: There are moment to moment flashes of emotion on someone’s face, changes in body language, and current distress. Empathy can be experienced by just witnessing a flash of emotion and allowing the person to know you see it and that you hear them. During this, we can try to understand the person’s emotions, and ask them to verify what they are feeling, if we are correct in our questions, such as if they are feeling sad or angry about something. Tuning into their experiential state and then asking if you are on the right track: (note if the patient gives a different word then do not contradict) can be helpful. Ask them a few questions to clarify: Perhaps you feel happy?Perhaps you feel frustrated?Perhaps you feel sadness?Perhaps you feel disgusted?Perhaps you feel concern or fear?Perhaps you feel a sense of pride?Perhaps you feel disconnected or numb?Perhaps you feel a sense of embarrassment or shame?Use their own words and repeat what you hear from them:Patient: “I just feel so tired and sad all the time.”Doctor: “It makes sense you feel tired because you have been so busy with your new jobs. In light of your recent losses your sadness also makes sense.”Matching rhythm of voice, tonality, emotionality.Matching an infant's cry rhythm (but not intensity) calms and regulates the infant ImitationRecognition of what the patient hopes for:I hear you have hopes for… desires for… dreams for… aspirations for...Level 2: This is where we try to know the context of the flash of emotion, the distress either in the distant past (how early relationships informed it) or recent life situations. Sometimes the quantity of distress is only as high as it is because it is linked to prior loss or prior trauma. We can find the context of the emotion by matching their emotionality, their demonstration of emotions on a level that we feel is appropriate. We can look at the meaning of the emotion and the context of the meaning of that emotion in their lives. We can also empathize with the meaning of the emotion once they’ve identified its context. Even if they flash anger towards themselves, but maybe they in doing that are not accomplishing the energy of the emotion, and they are missing how the anger can help them accomplish their goals. Thus when the anger is pointed at themselves, we can explain that the anger should be pointed outward, and give energy to action.Example: anger towards self looks like, “I am worthless” instead of anger towards abuser: “he should not treat me like that, I will set up a boundary.” The empathic statement can be “it must be hard to feel the anger pointed at yourself, telling you that you are worthless, and perhaps although it was adaptive to do this growing up, makes it hard to set boundaries now.”Level 3: This level is when the person is having emotion that occurs because of their relationship with you. It is the interpersonal, and commenting and empathizing with any distress (or positive emotion) that your relationship is creating is a level 3 empathic statement. When a patient demonstrates anger towards their therapist, it’s helpful to ask if they are feeling anger towards you and if they feel comfortable talking about that emotion. We can create psychological safety for a patient to give feedback to us by telling them we like to hear what they are feeling towards us. For example, my mentor, Dr. Tarr, tells his patients: “I very much want to hear your positive and negative feelings, particularly about me, and particularly negative ones. It will be helpful for you to share any feelings of disappointment, feelings of not being understood, feelings of not being responded to or criticized, or mannerisms or things I say that affect you undesirably. I hope you can understand that this is not a usual social situation, where you don’t tell people negative thoughts, here I hope you have the courage to say them out loud. It will be very helpful to say it has it is happening; we can learn much more than if it comes out later; we know it’ll be hard—but this kind of a laboratory where we discover what goes on between us.”
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticIn this week’s episode of the podcast, I interview Dr. Michael Cummings about psychopharmacology for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We talk about the symptoms, the treatments, and the typical myths about the disorder. What is ADHD? ADHD is a brain neurotransmitter disorder that affects a person’s ability to concentrate, their social interactivity, and their impulsivity. Diagnosing ADHDPeople who truly have ADHD typically experience inattentive and hyper symptoms across all areas of their life. For example, if they are in a job that requires periods of attention to complete or organize a project, it will be inherently more difficult for people with ADHD. One of the things that’s important in diagnosing people (particularly younger people) is their collateral history. People around the person with suspected ADHD are often more aware of the person’s deficits than the person themselves. When they reach adulthood, the problems might be made more obvious when they integrate into normal society and notice they struggle with symptoms of ADHD (compared to other people). Although not required for diagnosis, PhD level psychologists can do psychological testing, along with ADD/ADHD testing and IQ testing, to get a full idea of the patient’s symptoms. It helps confirm the diagnosis because these tests are widely used among the entire population, which provides a large sample mean to compare with. It’s also helpful to get a benchmark of performance before beginning treatment and then follow it up with later testing to see how effective the treatment has been. Myths about ADHDIf a child is hyper, he or she has ADHD.ADHD diagnosis has, at times, been a fad in the public, leading to many misdiagnoses and overmedicating, especially in children. Children are inherently hyperactive and less attentive than adults are. Doctors who are performing diagnostic tests must really pay attention to the criteria in children to make sure that the magnitude of the problems truly cause stress and social dysfunction before they try to diagnose or medicate a child. For example, the LA times published an article that ⅓ of the children in Orange County suffered from ADHD. Real studies show that prevalence in children is around 6-8%, in adolescence about 2.8%, and in adults about 2.5% of the population. ADHD disappears with the onset of puberty.Attentional deficits sometimes remains into adulthood, while hyperactivity may disappear as a child matures. We are giving people methamphetamines as medication. Methamphetamines and amphetamines are completely different drugs on a molecular level. The methyl group paired with amphetamines increases its absorption and effect on the brain. The amphetamines that are used to treat ADHD are essentially variants of dextroamphetamines. There are even versions that are difficult to abuse, such as with vyvanse, where lysine (the amino acid) is bound to the amphetamine. The lysine make the amphetamines unabsorbable unless it’s in the GI tract. It cannot be inhaled or injected and still be effective. Similarly, some of the slow-release versions are encapsulated in pills that won’t release the drug easily, except very slowly in the GI tract, making it difficult to divert or abuse those formulations. Dopamine stimulants are the only treatments for ADHD.There are other drugs that are useful for ADHD symptoms. They are (for the most part) drugs that increase brain norepinephrine. They can be used for people who don’t tolerate increases in dopamine, or for other reasons cannot be treated with dopaminergic agents. The most common side effect from amphetamines are increased anxiety, insomnia, increased sweating, hypertension, heart rate and blood pressure. These are things that can be overcome by titrating the drug more gradually, or being very attentive to the overall dosing of the drug. Amphetamines are likely the first line of treatment, unless a person has anorexia, is still growing, or still has strong family genetics with a history of addictions. What are true warning signs of child ADHD? When the child is struggling socially, has attention deficit, is struggling academically, and the problems are noted by the educators and parents alike, it may be time to seek out a diagnosis. Most teachers get pretty good at recognizing the one or two children in the class that are most impulsive, most hyperactive, and less attentive, so it can be helpful to ask them first if they’ve noticed something disruptive about the child.Often, boys with ADHD are easier to spot, because they tend to act out more. Girls tend to more often fall into the inattentive subtype, but may not be hyperactive or disruptive. They may not do as well academically, though intelligent, and that is a cue that they should be tested for the inattentive subtype. The problem is that unlike many disorders that have clear markers, attention—and the ability to modulate attention—always varies. One of the characteristics of people with ADHD is that they tend to be impulsive, often acting without thinking through the consequences of their behavior, which can lead them in some cases to do things that will get them in trouble in school or in their social group. It can become a self-reinforcing phenomenon. If a child is often in trouble and begins to take on the “troublemaker” attitude, the behavior can continue as part of their identity. There is even an association between ADHD and the development of conduct disorder and/or antisocial personality disorder.ADHD in adultsSometimes I treat young adults who were high functioning enough in high school to be able to get by academically, but they noticed a major difference in college when the coursework became more difficult. They’d procrastinate as long as they could, and only get things finished at the last minute when adrenaline kicked in and stimulated their brain to do the work. ADHD has been recognized as a failure of the reticular activating system to adequately stimulate the portions of the brain stem (the cortex and basal ganglia) in a way that it works for non-ADHD people. It can feel a little like the brain is drowsy all of the time. Another characteristic of ADHD is that patients tend to be more able to concentrate on subjects they are interested in. For example, medical students who prefer higher-risk, fast paced environments tend to not need their medication when they are in emergency room rotations. When they are in a subject matter that is not as interesting to them, they might need to take their medication to function at a higher level and retain the information. I try to help my ADHD patients increase the meaning in what they are doing on a daily basis as a form of treatment.People with ADHD have a higher rate of injury than the general population. There are many circumstances in which not paying attention to your environment is dangerous. One study shows that there is even a correlation between car accidents and ADHD. Driving requires attention and responses, and if people are prone to do impulsive things, but are not prone to pay attention, it can increase their rate of accidents. There is a noted decrease in risk of drug abuse when someone is treated appropriately with dopaminergic drugs, than there is if someone with ADHD is untreated. One of the things that occurs in people who don’t receive appropriate treatment and education (but they have ADHD) is that the first time a person takes a stimulant medication, maybe experimenting in college, illegally borrowing some for a test from a friend, they will report it as being the “first time they ever felt normal.” It can be a powerful lure to revisit the experience of feeling more normal, and being able to pay attention (I am in saying this, not recommending you ever share your ADHD medications, but nevertheless it is commonly reported to me on history as how they found out they might need treatment.)Without guidance and education, it can be a pathway to drug abuse rather than an appropriate treatment. Proper treatment can greatly enhance quality of life. Treating ADHDI once had a patient in the emergency room that told me she put a little bit of methamphetamines in her coffee every morning. She wasn’t getting high off of it, but I did wonder if she was self-treating something she had naturally noticed was a problem for her—inattention. People with ADHD should also be receiving a broad spectrum of psychosocial treatment and therapy, not just medication. If a child is under the age of 6, he or she should be given behavioral therapy as a first line treatment. The initial approach of diagnosis should be made carefully. If the person does have ADHD, the first treatment should be psychosocial interventions, afterwards, if that does not work, they can try medication. The main category for pharmacological treatment of ADHD are dopaminergic stimulants. These drugs essentially serve to stimulate the production of dopamine (amphetamines) or to block its reuptake (with drugs like methylphenidate). Amphetamines increase and release proper neurotransmitters and block reuptake, while methylphenidate is more purely just a reuptake inhibitor for dopamine. Medications that contain amphetamines will stimulate motor activity in healthy people, while it will actually return a hyperactive person to a calmer state as the dopamine regulates in their brain. For those who don't respond to dopamine increasing drugs, the other approach has been to increase norepinephrine with drugs like atomoxetine or some of the noradrenergic antidepressants, thereby increasing the person’s alertness. About 70% of people respond to dopaminergic agents, and 30% don’t respond, or can’t tolerate the increase in dopamine because of either insomnia or increased restlessness.Sometimes people with ADHD can also have comorbid anxiety. One professor explained that there is a survival advantage of both having ADHD and being willing to do high-fear tasks, but they also can have comorbidity with anxiety that keeps them from taking too high of risks and killing themselves. Often, when a patient comes to see Dr. Cummings that has both ADHD and anxiety, his first line of defense is to try and increase serotonin through SSRIs, along with the drug they are taking for ADHD. Some could take an antidepressant as well. Most children and adolescents with ADHD do best with a dopaminergic agent, although those are also problematic in some people. Exercise also has a positive effect on ADHD, specifically anaerobic exercise. It can aid several neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine and dopamine. Issues with ADHD medicationSometimes children who are on ADHD medication can experience a loss of proper growth hormone, causing different issues. If someone chronically takes a stimulant, they will be about an inch or an inch and a half shorter than if they did not take a dopamine stimulant. If that’s a problem for them will depend on the inherent genetic makeup of the person. If the child comes from a family of very tall people, it might not be a problem to lose an inch or two. If the family is short, losing an inch or two might be more of an issue socially and culturally.Also, anorexia can be an issue, because dopaminergic medications can decrease appetite. It occurs to some extent in everyone who takes a dopaminergic drug, definitely enough to cause widespread clinical concern. However, there are approaches, such as taking drug holidays from the medication, that can help regulate the decreased appetite. Whether someone should take a drug holiday, or break from taking their medication, will depend on how disruptive the person will become when they are not on a stimulant. If it will cost the person social interactions and friendships, it is usually better to keep them on the medication. Other abuses of ADHD drugs are very similar to the abuse or appropriate use of any molecule. The person who is using a stimulant appropriately is using it to improve their functionality—they are using it to pay attention and have a normal life. The person who is abusing a stimulant is taking it for the purpose of getting high. They are seeking the euphoric effects of the stimulants rather than positive life change. Someone who is trying to get a “speed run” will take a gram of medication, while someone who is trying to medicate for ADHD will take 20,30, or 50mg of methylphenidate in order to maintain their ability to concentrate. The true identification of abuse of amphetamine medication is a person’s deterioration in their ability to function in a balanced manor. Not sleeping for days because of stimulants, even if someone is able to get A’s on tests, is not improving their functionality and may hurt them long term.In conclusionAs a whole, doctors need to be more careful when diagnosing ADHD. There is a tendency to over-diagnose, leading to over-medicating. Even if you receive a diagnosis, there are also several cognitive behavioral therapies that have been developed to help people deal with the psychosocial components of having ADHD. These can be self-administered through computers. There are also mindfulness practices to help the person monitor themselves so they are better at social interactions. Exercise should also be optimized. Repeat psychological tests can help guide effective treatment. Patients who have had ADHD untreated for years might have subsequent low self esteem. Approaching the uniqueness of the patient and their presentation will help the patient thrive! 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sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.On this week’s episode of the Psychiatry and Psychotherapy podcast, I interview Mark Ard, M.D., a third year psychiatry resident at Loma Linda University. On the state level, he works towards developing means of access to care, in-patient psychiatric care, affordability of care, and further access to mental health. Mark is also the person who encouraged me to start pursuing weight training through Starting Strength, which we will link in this article.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticUnderstanding PlaceboDavid Puder, M.D., Mikyla Cho, Mark Ard, M.D.What is placebo? The original meaning of the word placebo is, “I will please.” That statement comes from a time when doctors didn’t have our modern code of ethics, and they would prescribe whatever would make the person feel better. They probably had the best intentions, but they also would have known that whatever they were prescribing might not have been a real medication for the symptoms the patient was experiencing. Doctors, even then, knew that suggestion was powerful, sometimes more powerful than the medicine they were prescribing.Laypeople who hear the word “placebo” automatically think of sugar pills. They may think only that it’s something a doctor gives to placate and make people feel better when they aren’t getting the active medication. Placebos have long been used as a comparison arm for clinical trials. Usually it is in the form of an inert sugar pill or sham-procedure. Researchers can observe a psychobiological response known as the placebo effect. But when thinking about the word “placebo,” we must think of the entire effect of it, and it is perhaps better termed “the meaning effect.” As I discussed in last week’s episode of the podcast, the meaning we give something creates belief, and belief is a potent change mechanism, even when it comes to our physical health. It is especially potent when it comes to mental health. The placebo effect encompasses the therapeutic alliance, expectations, natural healing of the body and mind, and the environment of therapy. It involves the power of suggestion, mood, and the beliefs behind even one positive or negative interaction with a doctor. It also, as we will see, involves studies involving heavy-hitting medication. When there is an increased ritual, there is an increased placebo effect. During a hospital stay, the surgery preparation, meetings with doctors, nurses and therapists can have an incredibly therapeutic effect on a patient. It is possible to see biological mechanisms triggered by psychosocial context and attribute it to a placebo effect. What is the power of suggestion, the meaning effect, placebo effect, and how do we use it or avoid it in our practices and when testing new medical treatments?Why do we study placebo?We study placebos because we need to understand how meaning works, how belief works, and on the other side, if a medicine actually works. As doctors, we need to be able to read studies critically, with an eye for placebo. We need to see what actually works and what the study was controlling the treatment group to. We also need to know if there parts of the treatment that are working only because of the placebo effect, and if so, how do we use that to heal people.How does the placebo effect work?The efficacy of the placebo goes up because of the expectation and meaning we give to placebo. In one study, half of the patients got the actual medication, half got the placebo. In the same study, in another group, 25% of the patients got the placebo, and 75% of them got the actual medication. In both of these studies, the participants were told the percentage chance they would get the real medication. In the study where only 25% of patients received the placebo, more people experienced positive changes from the treatment, whether they received the placebo or not. Most people believed, because of hearing the percentages, that they would probably get the medicine. That belief increased the placebo effect. In groups with lower percentages receiving the actual medication, the response is lower, even with real medication. Researchers think placebo effect works because of expectation and classical conditioning mechanisms. Such understanding may be an oversimplification of a very complex phenomenon but it provides a useful framework. Expectation is how much the patient believes in the therapy. Higher expectation leads to hope and positive outlook, which results in better outcomes. Exactly how this works is still under investigation. There are multiple theories as to the underlying mechanism, but overall, we can say that there is a bidirectional interaction between expectations and emotions, and we respond better when expectations are high and our mood is good. Classical conditioning contributes to the placebo effect by modulating conscious expectation and non-conscious learning. The white coat effect is a classic example of how our body responds to a conditioned stimulus. Also, when a patient feels better after taking a pill, it becomes a conditioned stimulus, and the body may respond positively even after taking a placebo medication because of its conditioned response. Expectation can be shaped by many factors. Broadly, these factors can be grouped into patient effect, clinician effect and study design effect. Patient effect refers to patient characteristics such as beliefs, values, cultures, and the meanings associated with the illness and the treatment. In a study of IBS patients, Vase et al found that expected pain levels and desire for pain relief accounted for up to 81% in the variance in visceral pain intensity. There is also a greater dopamine release in patients who had higher expectation. (De la Fuente-Fernández). Conversely, pessimists were more likely to have negative side effects (when compared to optimists’ responses) when told a placebo would make them feel bad.(Geers) How a patient interprets and generates meaning in a given treatment condition is widely variable and difficult to control for. A similarity in demographic characteristics would not account for all of them. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of antidepressants is an example of how a society can shape one’s view and expectation of the illness and the treatment. The promotion of antidepressants inherently depends on the biological model of depression. By simplifying depression as serotonin deficiency, antidepressants were promoted as a simple solution to a complicated problem. These advertisements are designed to convey that “psychopharmaceuticals have an obvious, objective, and scientific relationship to the symptoms they are supposed to treat”(Greenslit, 2012). The reality is more complex and difficult to understand than the advertising, but the narrative is believed and shapes decision making. An interaction with a clinician can shape the expectation of outcomes as well, especially if there is a strong alliance. Warmth, empathy, duration of interaction, and communication of positive expectation may significantly affect clinical outcome (Kaptchuk). One article (Verhulst et al., 2013) deconstructed the correlation between the medical alliance and placebo. The placebo effect encompasses the beliefs, values, and expectations that patients have about a treatment. We can help shape a patient’s belief and expectations by giving realistic illustrations of the treatment, which are more valuable than false hopes; this is the medical alliance that we as healthcare providers can utilize. Part of the medical alliance is the idea of concordance between the physician and patient. There is both narrative concordance, the shared understanding of the patient’s condition, and the relational concordance, the shared relationship structured based on scripts, boundaries, and interactional rules. Ultimately, by utilizing the idea of concordance and a strong alliance with the patient we can influence how they view a treatment and better the outcomes via the placebo effect. Study design can also change expectation. Having a higher chance of being assigned to the treatment group and having a choice (Rose 2012) increases the expectation. The degree to which placebo resembles the treatment is another important consideration, because unblinding can lead to decreased expectation. (Some studies utilize active placebo to make unblinding more difficult.) In pharmacological studies, active placebo usually contains some real medication that contains some of the expected side effects to imitate the expected treatment. The mechanisms that control placebo effect:Opioid system This system bolsters a lot of the evidence for pain relievers—you have more of a placebo effect on the patient if they know they're getting the medication than if it’s snuck into an IV. The opioid system in the brain begins to work as a pain reliever before any actual medication sets in, if it’s even administered. Dopamine systemDopamine signaling is involved in expectation and response. Our brains will respond as if something is happening if it believes it will happen. This pathway is also involved in habit formation and novelty seeking. The brain lights up in the same way to a placebo as it does to an active intervention. There is a fascinating link between dopamine deficiency and Parkinson’s disease; placebos can induce dopamine release, leading to improvement in Parkinson’s disease motor dysfunction.In another study, people were told they were getting either a cheap medication or an expensive medication. Even though they both received placebos, the group who was told they were getting the more expensive medication experienced a greater placebo effect. Even the color of medication can affect a person’s response. Brand names can affect a person’s response. A person who is told they are receiving an anti anxiety medication will calm down, even if it’s a placebo. Prefrontal cortexThe third “system” is prefrontal cortex, which is involved in associations and meaning. This is also one of the main areas involved in improvement of depression (Murray, 2013).What is the effect of placebos on the medical profession?Is placebo testing accurate?Some industries fail to examine things with an accurate and rigorous placebo. For example, in a recent study on Botox used for depression, ¾ of the subjects knew if they had received the placebo or not (Finzi & Rosenthal, 2014). Some studies also neglected that placebos can actually change brain chemistry, and activate or deactivate different areas of the brain. We often think that the patient who is administered a placebo, in taking the medication, thinks it is real and thus the whole placebo response is merely from taking the pill. But in those results we neglect the human factors that come into play when a person meets with a psychiatrist that is doing the patient interview, and how it could be the therapeutic alliance and feeling cared for that influences outcomes and spontaneous remission of symptoms. For the medical field to determine that it’s not only the placebo effect taking place, that the medicine or treatment actually works, many factors come into play. Discussing negative side effects with patientsHow do you talk about medication as a doctor without scaring the patients with a side effect list? Studies show that by listing side effects, people are more likely to experience the side effects. I usually discuss the side effects with patients if they occur in more than 1% of patients or if the side effect is life threatening. Also, if the patient feels like they need to stop the medication, I tell them to call or email me. Even knowing they can reach out of they are experiencing problems gives patients a sense of peace, and could decrease negative placebo effects of the medicine, and increase positive effects of it. In medical education at large, there seems to be a loss of the science of connection and a focus on medicine rather than being able to emotionally connect to people, and mental health is part of the human experience. Therapy and the placebo effectPlacebo and psychiatry have an interesting and complicated relationship—both are concerned with the mind-body connection. Using placebo in psychiatriatric research is, therefore, more challenging. It is more difficult to tease out the true effect of a treatment since mental illnesses have significant psychosocial components. Higher therapeutic alliance, higher empathy, and higher interpersonal skills all have better outcomes. Beyond the model of therapy, each therapist’s kind of connection to their patients deeply affects a patient's’ response.The value of the therapeutic alliance can be as powerful as medication, and also bolster the effectiveness as the medication itself. In their paper Wampold, Frost, and Yulish (2016) reviewed the history of how placebo was used in randomized control trials for testing the efficacy of psychotherapies. They found that when poorly designed placebo therapies were used as controls, the psychotherapy treatment group had superior results. It is difficult to have a truly controlled placebo. For example, it can be obvious whether a therapy is a placebo or a true psychotherapy and the providers administering the treatments would also know which was the true treatment. People have advocated that different psychotherapies are beneficial because of their common factors such as the therapeutic alliance, discussing expectations, and instilling hope. These and other factors common to the variety of psychotherapies can also be found in the placebo effect, which facilitates the argument that placebo psychotherapies are not inert. Therefore when we look at studies that compare psychotherapies to a placebo therapy, we must be aware that the comparisons may not be completely accurate. In therapy practice there are no effective placebos to be given to compare, so effect size with therapy is very different than effect size with medication vs placebo. A broader and more nuanced understanding of the placebo effect is important in two ways. First, it allows a clinician to critically evaluate studies that compare the treatment with placebo. Placebo should be evaluated within the framework of mental illnesses. Secondly, understanding placebo allows a clinician to maximize the clinical outcome by focusing on factors such as alliance. Placebo teaches us about the complexity of the mind body connection, and calls for a more integrated approach in treating mental illnesses. The effect size in double blind studies, however, does not tell the whole story of the effectiveness of the psychiatric relationship, because it does not take into account the part of the placebo response that actually came from a psychiatrist’s relationship with the patient. Even since the beginning of psychopharmacology, in the 1940’s, placebo effect has increased. In part, I believe that’s because we’ve reduced mental illness to a few symptoms and then say those can be helped or fixed by a pill. For example, there is commonly believed language around depression that says it’s a serotonin deficiency. So, patients take medicines to boost their serotonin (SSRI medication). That is not the only thing going on in depression, and it’s not necessarily true. So SSRI medications have a large placebo effect. Further, different psychiatrists will have different effectiveness with patients (McKay, 2006). The authors analyzed data from the Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (TDCRP) that compared imipramine hydrochloride with clinical management vs. placebo with clinical management and found that 7% to 9% of outcome variabilities depended on the psychiatrist providing the treatment. When using BDI, the results were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and when using the HAM-D the results were marginally significant (p = 0.053). Therefore the authors concluded that the psychiatrist effect was at least equal to or greater than the treatment effects. The effectiveness of a psychiatrist is also critical in proving optimal treatment. Non-therapeutic medical fields and doctor-patient relationshipsEven the awareness that the placebo effect exists should make medical workers understand that we need to consider people’s outside lives, not just the psychopharmacological effects of the medication. If little things have a placebo effect, and that is directly related to meaning and belief, what are the patients experiencing outside of the medical office that is influencing them? ConclusionOur brains were made to create meaning out of things, and this meaning can change the very nature of the brain. When we understand placebo we become better guides to our patients, steering them away from things that don’t do anything, and towards things like having a connected relationship with a caring person, which can be the treatment itself. We also look not only at how powerful a medication was compared to the placebo, but also if the patients thought they were taking the real medication or not. We also learn that belief is powerful and can understand how people get swayed into cults and taking things which have been proven to only be harmful.
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.In this podcast and article Dr. Kelly Rivinius, a licensed clinical psychologist who helps women suffering from PMAD, gives her insights about PMAD, its risk factors, prevention, and her own experience with perinatal OCD and anxiety. David Puder, M.D. and Kelly Rivinius, Psy.D. have no conflicts of interest to report.
Article the accompanies this episode go: here
Therapeutic Alliance Part 2: Meaning and Viktor Frankl’s Logotherapy
In the celebrated book Man’s Search for Meaning, author Viktor Frankl wrote about his intimate and horrific Holocaust experience. He found that meaning often came from the prisoners’ small choices—to maintain belief in human dignity in the midst of being tortured and starved and bravely face these hardships together.
Psychiatric Approach to Delirium with Dr. Timothy Lee
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This week on the podcast, I am joined by Dr. Timothy Lee, the Loma Linda residency program director and the head of medical consult and liaison services. One of his specialities is delirium, so this week we will be discussing both hypoactive and hyperactive delirium. What is delirium? Delirium is an acute change in a person’s sensorium (the perception of one’s environment or understanding of one’s situation). It can include confusion about their orientation, cognition or mental thinking.With hyperactive delirium, a patient can become aggressive, violent and agitated with those around them. A patient experiencing delirium can have hallucinations and hear things, they can become paranoid, and they are overall confused. A family, or non-psychiatric medical staff, might be concerned that the patient is experiencing something like schizophrenia. Hyperactive delirium symptoms in patients:Waxing and waning—it comes and goesIssues with concentrationPulling out medical linesYelling profanitiesThrowing thingsAgitatedResponding to things in the room that aren’t thereNot acting like themselvesHypoactive delirium is much more common than hyperactive delirium (based on research studies), but it is often missed because the presentation is much less dramatic. People with hypoactive delirium are confused and disoriented, but they do not express their confusion verbally or physically.Hypoactive delirium symptoms:Slower movementSofter speechSlower responsesWithdrawnNot eating as muchOften, nurses and physicians can miss the fact that the patient has the typical confusion that denotes delirium because the patient is quieter, so it doesn’t come to the attention of the medical team or psychiatrist consult service. Delirium can even be confused for depression. One Mayo Clinic study showed that when consulting a doctor about their depression, 67% of the time, the patient ended up having delirium. Why does delirium happen? Often we see it happen, even to relatively healthy people, in physically stressful situations—post surgery, during an acute illness, or even just being stuck in the hospital for a few days. This does not mean it is indicative of a sudden onset of a long term mental illness, such as schizophrenia.To consider what can cause delirium, I like to think systematically from the top of the body and work my way down. This is by no means exhaustive, but it can be helpful. Many things can cause delirium. I like to think about starting at the top of the body and going down, as a way to not miss the cause. Here are a few we would consider as we go down the body:Stroke—check strength in both arms and legs, have the patient smileHypertensive emergencyInfection or meningitisPhysical trauma—concussion, head injury with initial loss of consciousness, then after regaining consciousness they can have deliriumBrain bleedingMedications that affect the brain, such as ones that produce anticholinergic side effects. (They suppress acetylcholine, causing brain imbalances and confusion. Anti-allergy medicines, pain medications, and some psychiatric medications are anticholinergic.) Circulatory issuesThyroid imbalances or parathyroid hormonesCancer Heart attackTraumatic injury to the heartAspiration pneumonia Lung infectionLung cancerViral pneumoniaPancreatic inflammationUrinary tract infections in womenLiver cirrhosisHepatitisGallbladder inflammationLow bilirubinHepatic encephalopathy How do we identify delirium in a patient? Asking certain questions to the patient and/or medical team and family can help us understand if the patient is experiencing delirium. Often, a patient experiencing delirium will still know where they are, what they are doing, and who they are. The main test to really determine if it’s delirium is the “clock drawing” where we ask the patient to draw a clock with the hands showing 11:10.Here are some questions and tasks we ask the patient to answer and perform to test for delirium:Does the person know who they are?Does the person know where they are?In what detail does the person understand where they are?Does the person know the date? Can they orient to the situation? Do they know why they are there and the circumstances that led to them being in the hospital? We might ask the patient to repeat back a few words for us. We will ask them later if they remember the three words we asked previously. We test for concentration, like asking the days of the week in reverse order.We try to assess their visual and spatial ability.We might ask them to draw a clock to look for spacing, impairments, or difficulties. Some tests that are common to determine delirium are:The Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE)The Montreal Cognitive AssessmentHow to helpIt is important, if the patient has loved ones with them, to educate the family about delirium, because both hypoactive and hyperactive delirium can be terrifying to watch. When it comes to giving medications, it’s important to follow a few rules, Dr. Lee says. Giving medications with anticholinergic side effects can make the patient more agitated. When prescribing meds, be careful not to switch from a hyperactive delirium presentation to a hypoactive delirium presentation by just sedating the patient but maintaining confusion. Medications like benzodiazepine, barbiturates, sedatives and pain medications (beyond what is needed for pain) can all cause worsening of delirium. If the confusion is from an infection, an antibiotic should eventually help the cause of the delirium, however it may take a few days for the confusion to improve after the cause is eliminated. At times antipsychotic medications are used to help the delirium and reduce the time needed to stay in the hospital.Even after the cause of the delirium is gone, and the delirium seems to have improved very quickly, a person may still have lingering cognitive issues. It’s important to be conservative in terms of how quickly you taper them off of the antipsychotic medication used to treat the delirium.
Ketamine and Psychedelics with Dr. Michael Cummings
What has piqued interest in psychiatry is that infusion of a smaller dose of ketamine produces a rapid response in terms of reversal of depressed mood, suicidality, and some treatment-resistant depressed patients.
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.On this week’s episode of the podcast, I interviewed Allison Maxwell-Johnson, a social worker and PhD student of clinical social work. I refer patients to her regularly for psychoanalysis, and she has had a wonderful impact on their mental health journey.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticPsychodynamic therapy is a form of talk therapy where the practitioner work focuses on the patient’s emotion, fantasies, dreams, unconscious drives and wishes, early and current life relationships, and the relationship that is forming between the patient and therapist. The history of psychodynamic therapySigmund Freud is known as the father of psychodynamic therapy. He practiced in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Some psychiatrists and therapists think that Freud has been debunked because he is a controversial figure. But my colleague, Allison Maxwell, and I, think his impact on furthering the mental health field has been positive.Historically, people with borderline personality disorder, somatic disorder and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were all grouped under the title of “hysteria.” A few hundred years ago, these people would have been killed as witches, put in asylums, and there wasn’t much ability to, or interest in, digging into their psyche. There was certainly no warmth or empathy given to them. Freud began to grapple with those deeper, tougher issues, claiming it wasn’t just a medical disorder. He gave empathy, and a level of connectedness to his patients that hadn’t been done before. As the first psychoanalyst, he was a pioneer in his field, and he figured out that having an emotionally connected relationship with his patients (he would even have is patients over for dinner and go for walks with them) could actually heal the patient. AffectAffect is something therapists need to pay attention to when it comes to each individual patient. It’s about noting the facial and emotional state of the person. Is the patient emotionally flat or expressive? Are they depressed or happy? Are they peaceful or agitated? We focus on their emotional state and try to lean in to understand what a patient is feeling during a session. As the doctor or therapist, what is the emotional reaction you're having to the patient, in the moment? Analyze the situation—both your feelings and theirs. Ask them for clarification on their feelings, then ask yourself how you can use that information to understand and connect with the patient emotionally. There are multiple emotions going on which can be conflicting. We need to ask ourselves if we can empathize with the distress that is in the room. It’s not only about intellectually understanding what’s happening with a patient, or diagnosis. It’s about understanding how to create an emotional connection and help someone.TransferenceA therapist applies the principle of transference when we pay attention to the emotional state the patient has towards them. If the therapist reminds them of their abusive father, and they react emotionally, it’s a classic transference situation. Understanding transference can help a therapist remain empathic and curious, even when a patient is angry at them. Transference can be seen in their complete reaction towards you, both from their past, and how you are interacting with them. CountertransferenceAs therapists, we are also humans. We will have reactions to the patients we work with. Countertransference is the complete reaction we have towards our patients, both coming from how the patient reminds us of people from our past, and our reaction towards the things that the patient is uniquely doing. The unconscious exists both in our patients and in us. If we can keep countertransference in our awareness as therapists, we can try to understand what is happening interpersonally—why we do or don’t like our patient, and why we feel angry or upset with our patients. As therapists, we should not react to our patients out of direct emotion, but understand that countertransference is happening, and be curious about the meanings behind our feelings, and their feelings towards us. Studies that show psychodynamic theory works:For the curious, read this article by Jonathan Shedler, “The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy” PDFMentalization-based therapyMentalization therapy is an emotion-focused therapy for people with borderline personality disorder. It helps them question whether they are accurately mentalizing, or understanding, their own experiences and their therapists emotional experiences. The positive effect of mentalization-based therapy is measurable. It has a mean effect size of 1-2, meaning it is 1-2 standard deviations from the control group—it works. People who were in and out of psychiatric hospitals with suicide attempts, after mentalization therapy, can have great success in achieving a normal life. Study on Mentalization based therapy with 8 year follow up: PDFTransference Based Therapy:Article on transference focus therapy increasing a patient’s narrative coherence and reflective function: PDFIn conclusionAs therapists, including psychodynamic principles can help us connect with our patients. It will protect us from burnout, and give our patients the chance to feel emotionally connected with someone, in a corrective and healing way. It can be incredibly rewarding, rather than draining, when we feel connected, and our patients usually express gratitude as they heal.
Advice for medical students applying to psychiatric residency
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Timothy Lee has talked to thousands of medical students about how to applying for residency programs, and here, he gives us a few tips on how to make it through the gauntlet, and how to have your best chance at landing the program you want. Here is what Timothy Lee says:Stay calmMany students have been fine tuning their personal statements, and trying to get their resume just right, or hurrying to press the faculty to write letters of recommendation. It can be very stressful. It’s okay to turn in information a little bit later, in order to have all of the paperwork you need. It’s even okay to review your statement after you’ve already turned it in. No one will lower their opinion based on that. You will need to have applied for the majority of the programs you are interested in by early or mid-October, otherwise the program director might wonder if you’re applying to them later as a backup plan.What matters in a personal statement?Every program director will have different opinions on what you write, and every program director will be looking for different things from your personal statement. For some people, it’s a chance to get to know the applicant a little bit. For others, it doesn’t really matter that much. As long as your grammar and syntax are competent, you should be fine. Some people don’t worry about the format, and others are more particular. To be on the safe side, if you have access to a good mentor, run it by them. Also, don’t be too wordy—stick to a page and a half. Do step scores matter? Step scores are a very convenient screening tool for what matters, but there are studies that show that step scores are not directly correlated to success in residency performance. They are helpful, but are not the end-all-be-all. It’s only one part of the picture of an applicant. However, if you are going for a highly-competitive school, you might need to worry about step scores a bit more. Apply to the right number of programsThe number of programs is not the only way to increase your chance of success of getting in. Pay attention to the types of programs you are applying to as well. If you are applying for a good number of programs, make sure at least half of them are are ones you are a solid and potentially attractive candidate for. Keep a good perspectiveUltimately, you are more than your CV, step score, or personal statement. If patients like you, that’s going to go a long ways. Your patients won’t know your scores, or where you graduated from medical school. They will know if you were competent, caring and connected. That is ultimately what matters.
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticWhat is a therapeutic alliance?The therapeutic alliance is a collaborative relationship between the physician and the patient. Together, you jointly establish goals, desires, and expectations of your working partnership.Every interview with a patient, whether it’s for diagnostic, intake, evaluative, or psychopharmacology purposes, has therapeutic potential. The treatment starts from your first greeting—how you listen, empathize, and even how you say goodbye. It’s built from a partnership and dialogue, like any other relationship. It’s not built from medical interrogation. It’s not about pulling medical information to be able to make a diagnosis. We have to make it a positive experience for patient, so they can begin to talk about what's negative in their lives.The therapeutic alliance is full of meaning, and it uses every emotional transaction therapeutically. If they get angry, sad, or have fear you will abandon them, as a therapist, it’s our job to figure out how to help them through that feeling within the relationship. The doctor can express desire for the patient to share, in real time, how the patient is feeling, even about his or her relationship with the doctor.Why do we care?We all know that some talk therapists have better outcomes than other talk therapists. What’s interesting though, is that some some psychiatrists’ placebos worked better than other psychiatrists’ active drugs. One study of NIMH data of 112 depressed patients treated by 9 psychiatrists with placebo or imipramine, found that variance in BDI score (a score that measures depression) due to medication, was 3.4% and variance due to psychiatrist was 9.1%. One-third of psychiatrists had better outcomes with the placebo than one-third had with imipramine. Another book argues that the therapist is more important to outcome than theory or technique. Many other studies have shown that therapeutic alliance directly correlates to success rates.What builds a therapeutic alliance?Research shows there are a few things that grow therapeutic alliance:ExpertnessFacilitating a greater level of understandingWhen residents are worried they are an imposter, I tell them that humility is good, but realize that you have experience that most will never have, medical school, being highly educated, being around vast different ways of thinking and reflecting on the world...ConsistencyStructuring your office to run on time.Being consistent to respond to refill request, lab results, or patient’s questions.Non-verbal gestures Eye contactLeaning forwardMirroring of emotion occurs naturally when people pay attention to emotionMaintenance of the therapeutic frameA dual relationship (eg, dating) breaks down therapeutic alliance. Patients will test the frame. It can be helpful to say, "There will be positive and negative feelings between us and what will be safe is to talk about them."Empathy, attunement, positive regard Patient: “Therapist is both understanding and affirming."Patient: “Therapist adopts supportive stance.”Patient: “Therapist is sensitive to patient’s feelings, attuned to patient, empathic.”Research has found that for beginning therapists, setting and maintaining treatment goals is harderResearch has shown that strength of therapeutic bond is not associated with level of trainingTherapist should appear alert, relaxed and confident rather than bored, distracted and tiredFoundational concepts of the therapeutic allianceOur profession gives us a privileged glimpse into the human heart and mind. Each patient is idiosyncratic, unique, precious. Each patient has unique strengths which we should place focus on. Some therapists can be in a hurry to find out what's wrong, but we should also want to find out what's right with our patients.Our own feelings, as therapists, about the session are not intrusions but clues. If you are experiencing boredom, perhaps you are not understanding the main point the patient is trying to explain. Be curious for what you are missing. If you start feeling something different than you did at the beginning of the encounter, notice it. Try to empathize for the patient with what changed.Our goal is for the patient to feel understood, heard, accepted, felt. To be understood is to be accepted.A strong alliance will provide a "Corrective Emotional Experience" (Franz Alexander), which means past relational pain and difficulties are worked out in a new relationship. When your subjectivity (your feelings, thoughts, goals) come into contact with the patient's subjectivity, a unique "intersubjective relationship" is formed from your mutual influencing of each other. A new dyad (2 coming together) is formed by looking at new meanings, understandings and connectedness. As a therapist, you are a “participant observer” as you observe the patient’s behavior and also become a “significant other” in their life through your interactions (Harry Stack Sullivan).Here are some things to consider on a first encounter with a patient:The patient will feel: examined, fear being seen as crazy, fear of not being liked, discouraged, hopeless, helplessness, needy, fear you are a mind reader, or even fear that you sleep with your patients.In developing this relationship, it’s important to understand they can formulate defenses that are adaptive. Try to empathize with that underlying emotion. Starting with what's an adaptive response and solves something, looking for what’s maladaptive does not.The patient may question your competence. They might say you look very young to be a doctor. The appropriate response would be to dig down and see why they are feeling what they are feeling. Say something like,"Perhaps you were looking for someone who looks older; of course you’re entitled to worry about how competent I am and how much I may be able to help you."Therapists are always worried about being ineffectual. It's very natural to feel like an impostor in our position. It’s also normal to feel—when someone's angry at us, our mirror neurons lead us to be angry back.Always face the patient, without desks between you, lean slightly forward, give appropriate eye contact, and do not do excessive note taking (you should be observing at least 90% of the time). Ideally, a clock is positioned behind the patient which can easily be seen by you without making obvious movements.On Listening: An Active ProcessConnection is non-verbal, and is equally as important as verbal communication, sometimes more so. Omissions (what is not said) in the patient's stories and memories are important.Point out common patterns you hear.If every time you say something to the patient he says "no, that's not it" then point out that to the patient. Be aware when asking "why" questions, you are likely going to arouse the same defensive emotional reactions that occurred when the patient as a child was asked "why did you do that?" by the parent. At times, "why" can communicate disapproval. For example you ask, "Why do you feel that?" And they say, "I DON'T KNOW! Are not you the doctor!"Dr. Tarr has some good advice on nonverbal communication: "I participate. I respond. I react to my patient and to his verbal and nonverbal communications. At the same time I observe what's going on, what the patient is saying and what he is not saying. I am particularly attuned to evidences of anxiety, to what I am feeling and thinking, and where, if anywhere, the interchanges are going. I am wondering how best to formulate for this particular patient what I observe that may help him feel understood and responded to."Observe that defenses (sublimation, reaction formation, intellectualization), although they reduce anxiety, may misrepresent reality. Assume an attitude of "reverie," like a good maternal object, receiving toxic stuff from patients and then giving it back to them in a detoxified form (Wilfred Bion).Create a "holding" place for patients in which patients have a transitional or play space (Donald Winnicott).Listen in a way that notes what the patient is trying to say about your relationship.Patient: "I feel lonely even when I am with people." Doctor: "Do you feel lonely here with me now?" Patient: "No, I feel you understand me somewhat." Doctor: "I want to know if there are any times where you feel more lonely in our sessions, it will help me to understand what is going on between us."Listen to their moment to moment change in emotions.Try to enter a bit into their feeling, be present with them, mirror the emotion/feeling, use their own words, ask them to find their own words.If you don’t get why they are sad, then stay with it, ask them more questions, have them deepen your understanding of it.Once they feel you truly understand the effect will change. When people feel heard, deeply understood, it is pleasurable. Shame- patient looks down“I can understand why talking about this must be difficult.”“Perhaps as you talk about this you feel…”Try to find the adaptive function: “I hear switching to a new doctor is hard, I think that is a common experience, I think it is adaptive to be hesitant at first in what you share, we are just meeting."Anger/Frustration:“Would you say that as you mentioned this you feel frustrated.”Find the adaptive function: “your anger here seemed to have the goal to protect you and your family” “your anger likely kept you alive!"Sadness“Perhaps you are feeling sad as you say this?”Find the adaptive function: “it makes sense that you feel sad here, I think crying and feeling sad shows how much you valued your dad and therefore the loss hurts that much more."Disgust“I am wondering if you feel disgusted by this?”“I hear you feel disgusted…” (ask with a questioning tone).Find the adaptive function: “Feeling disgusted by how your sisters turned on you and cast you out of the family makes sense, it sickens you to see the level of their resentment and bitterness."Fear“I hear a deep concern or perhaps fear regarding this.”“Might there be a deep concern or perhaps fear regarding this?”Find the adaptive function: “After your traumatic event, it makes sense that you would no longer want to put yourself in that situation, it sounds like you are trying to protect yourself."Listen to the patient’s goals, purposes, aspirations, fears, hopes, values, meanings.How do you create and maintain a working alliance:Be sensitive to empathic strains and prevent them from developing into empathic ruptures. Ask for feedback. Reflect on the "we" aspect of the encounter. If the intervention/participation failed to have the desired result then look at what went wrong with the communication. “As we were talking together when did you really feel we were on the same page?”“When did you feel we were understanding each other?”“When did you feel we were communicating meaningfully?” “When were you feeling disappointed?”“When did you fell I was not responding enough?” “When did you feel frustrated, misunderstood, or impatient?”Be able to define and predict interpersonal conflicts that may cause a disruption of the shared empathic relationship. Set the groundwork for openness.For example: Doctor: "Tell me about your past psychiatrist? “What worked and what were your disappointments with your past psychiatrist?"Patient: "He was kind of a jerk." Doctor: "Can you tell me more about that?" Patient: "He always would just stare at this computer, and often answered his pager during sessions." Doctor: "Thank you for sharing that, I will stop typing and finish this later, I hope that if you ever have any feedback for me you will know that I will want to hear it, even if it is negative, and will appreciate knowing your experience of things."Patient: “Ooo I was not talking about you.”Doctor: “Ok, nevertheless it is a good reminder to not be focused on the computer, but if you are bothered by things or frustrated it will be helpful to know.”The therapeutic alliance is an incredibly powerful relationship, and if it is managed with care, it can affect positive change in a patient’s life. In future episodes on therapeutic alliance I will dig deeper into specifics of it, and pull upon the depth of my mentorship from Dr. John Tarr.
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticThis week on the podcast I spoke with fellow therapist, Randy Stinnett Psy. D, about how trauma works, and how we can help our patients overcome it. What is trauma?Emotional trauma comes from stress that is overwhelms a person’s neurological system. Some stress can be good and formative, or it can be bad and get stuck in the brain, causing someone deep emotional pain.Think of climbing Mount Everest. Some people choose to do that, and it’s easily one of the most stressful situations you can put yourself in on purpose. That’s good stress if you have trained for years and are ready for it. If someone forced you to climb Mount Everest, it would register in the brain as a trauma.Trauma is too big for the mind, brain, and nervous system to assimilate. It’s a memory, or experience, that gets stuck because the person believed it would result in their death, or at least serious injury.The brain has several mechanisms to keep something stuck so that the person will remember it, and try to avoid getting hurt in the same way in the future. It is a survival instinct.People commonly demonstrate symptoms of trauma when they’ve: Experienced a sexual violationSeen violenceExperienced violence or abuseBeen neglected—experienced the absence of something that they should have had.Been in near death experiences like car accidents or warPeople who have PTSD, or post traumatic stress disorder, have experienced a soul-level of brokenness, and even talking about the event, or having a memory of it, can bring it back with the same force that occured in the actual accident. They often have recurring nightmares, or repetitive symptoms that continue long after the event.Typical PTSD symptoms alternate between chronic shut down and fight and flightFight and flight symptoms are:Sweating, nightmares, flashbacks, anger, rage, panic, hypervigilance, tense muscles, painful knotted gutShut down symptoms are:Dissociation, freezing, emotional detachment, voice trembling, difficulty getting words out, numbness, apathy, fear, helplessness, dizzy, empty, nauseaMoments in connection mode look like:curiosity, exploration, relaxed and full breathing, feeling grounded, true smiles Body movement and traumaWe’ve all heard the reference to Pavlov’s dogs—the bell rings and the dogs salivate because they know it is dinnertime. Pavlov discovered many more things than that dogs drool. Once, his lab was flooded with freezing water that nearly filled the cages of the dogs. When they were finally able to get the dogs free, the dogs interacted differently with the world around them. They seemed hopeless.Humans work the same way.PTSD rates were 16% for survivors of 911, and 33% for survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Why? Traumatologists speculate it was because during 911, survivors were running away from the catastrophe to save their lives. In Katrina, the victims were airlifted out and placed in gyms, for sometimes months at a time. Those in lower socioeconomic levels had no money, no home, and nowhere to go—they were trapped.The body is designed to move away from danger, but if the body can’t move, trauma can set in. Attachment based traumaHaving a negative attachment with parents often sets people up for later traumas in life to be a bigger assault on the nervous system and psychological functioning, than it would have been as a standalone event.Patients who experience unhealthy attachments often struggle with emotional regulation and boundaries. Many people, as children, were not heard and mirrored in their emotions and experiences. When they discussed their problems with their parent, and it was met with disdain or shut down, the patient has most likely developed the idea that they have no voice. The stress was not contained and thus all the raw emotion is still there and unprocessed. This leads something to continue to be traumatic in the brain. This follows the same pattern as polyvagal theory. When we are in connection mode, we are open hearted and happy. When we feel stress, or lack of connection, our sympathetic nervous system kicks in and we switch into fight or flight mode. If that disconnection continues, our parathetic nervous system takes over and we go into full-on shutdown. When children are repeatedly ignored or abused, they switch in and out of shutdown mode, causing trauma.Polyvagal theory and attachment theory, and how they affect children (and adults too), are demonstrated best in the Still Face Experiment video (link to prior article I wrote on that experiment).Attachment trauma is repeated trauma. It can occur in childhood, or any other time throughout our lives within relationships. Notes to therapists on dealing with PTSDStudies show that having an emotionally connected therapist, while someone is reprocessing their traumatic memories, can help heal the emotional damage of those memories.Displaying emotional stabilityPatients often superimpose all of their abusers onto their therapists. As therapists, we need to realize this, and stay steady during the entire course of therapy. Remaining calm, safe and empathic is one of the most healing things we can do for them.It is a way of being, not just an action, or a reaction, towards our patients.Receiving feedbackAs therapists, it’s important to be able to receive feedback from our patients about what is working for them without it being an adversarial situation.We must respond in a way that allows the patient to have their own voice. First, validate their emotional experience of the patient. Next, thank them for being honest with you. Ask for the whole story behind their feedback.I am not saying this as some sort of technique, but rather this should come out of the belief that 1) their emotional experience is valid and needs a voice 2) it takes courage to voice any feedback and this is important for their growth and success.When these things are truly believed, we are empathizing and thanking them, out of the core of our being, and not just as a technique. Where they were expecting rejection, you end up validating their experience. Finally, ask them how it feels, in the moment, to be heard and to be able to safely express their opinion. Allow them to experience a felt difference between you and their abusers. This provides a corrective emotional experience!Know when to limit the stressUnderstanding the different nervous system’s functions will help you know when enough is enough for your patient.Study the symptoms of the activation of the somatic, autonomic, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nervous systems. This is imperative, and if you cannot slowly uncover the stressful situations in a way that the patient can manage it without engaging shutdown mode, you will end up doing more damage than good.Emotional connectionOne psychiatry resident asked my mentor, Dr. John D Tarr, if it was better to keep inpatient people at an emotional distance, so the patient would not get attached and want to continue to stay in the hospital. My mentor responded that we always want to be connected to our patients, to be empathic. When we feel they are getting attached and don’t want to leave, we need to open up that dialogue to how we can help them experience connection outside of the hospital.Studies show that patients who feel connected to their doctor are more engaged in treatment—they go to therapy, take their medications, and continue their mental health journey.Trauma-based memories are different from normal memories, like knowing what you ate for breakfast this morning. Trauma-based memory has a sensory aspect to it. They are stored in a different part of the brain than where we function for our daily, normal connection mode.As therapists, when we access those memories with patients, the patient begins to switch to a different part of their mind, and demonstrate symptoms of trauma physically. They may tremble, sweat, and sometimes even their voice changes—it can be hard to get the words out, they whisper, they sound child-like.To understand how people respond to trauma, we have to know that emotions have primacy, or first dibs, on our reactions. Our brain deems them more important than our executive functioning—our ability to reason and plan our lives’ daily tasks. If the patient is open to it and we have established a good, trusted attachment and connection, we will talk about their traumatic memories. If we do not have a connection in that way, I will not explore deep traumatic memories with them. It is more important to build a safe, secure relationship first.Trauma gets stuck in the non-analytical parts of the brain—our emotions, creativity, experiences, art. It’s image-based, somatic (physical body), it’s non-verbal. Parts of the left hemisphere of the brain deals with logic, reasoning and language. To integrate this part of the brain, the patient will have to access the emotional parts and then put words to their experiences. In that conversation, these are some of the questions I will ask:What did you see?What did you feel emotionally?What did your body experience?What do you believe about yourself as a result?Allow for freedomAlso, when we require our patients to do anything, even to stay for the whole hour of therapy if they do not want to, we are reinforcing the trapped feeling. Keep an open dialogue about what your patient is feeling throughout the therapy session.If the patient is suicidal with a plan and intent, they likely need a safe place to get through the intense time. I will tell them, “My goal is to not keep you here indefinitely. We will come up with a plan to get you out of here, and for you to be healthy.”In general, try to give your patients, especially the PTSD ones, choices. Create boundaries and give guidance, but allow them to have freedom in their choices.Summary In this first discussion with Dr. Stinnett, I wanted to highlight some introductory understanding on trauma. We discussed how trauma is stored differently in the brain and how the polyvagal theory is connected with this journey. We highlighted the importance of emotion, connection and feedback. Please leave comments below on your thoughts regarding this blog and podcast!
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticWhat are boundaries?When we refer to boundaries, we are talking about emotional walls that are healthy. Boundaries are meant to keep us in relationship with the people that we love.Think of them as your property lines around your house. You know where your lines are, where your property ends and your neighbors begins. Therefore you know what you are supposed to take care of and what your neighbor is supposed to take care of.A boundary defines our self. Within ourselves, our “property” consists of our physical body, our desires, our intellect, and our ability to make decisions. It gives us a sense of defining what is “me” and what is “not me.”We are not supposed to take on too much of other people’s emotional experiences. When I was a newly practicing psychiatrist, I didn’t know that, and I felt depressed after meeting with a depressed patient. It is possible to have an understanding of what is happening in someone’s emotional world, but not take it on yourself.There is a psychological principle that is common among people who struggle with having good boundaries with others. It’s called “siding with the aggressor.” For example, if someone grows up in a home where the father is constantly displaying angry behavior, a child might learn to develop a sense of humor if he or she learns that will diffuse the situation. Rather than running away from, or fighting back, these people joined with the aggressors, paying attention to them, calming them, helping them.Early on in childhood, people who side with the aggressor understand how to make others happy. This continues into adulthood and is formative in new relationships in how the person would choose to interact with others.I don’t think of it as a weakness, I think of it almost as a superpower—these people are incredibly skilled interpersonally when they get older. They know how to react to others, how to make others happy, and how to make angry people calm down. They are great peacemakers, therapists, and psychiatrists. It was an adaptive feature for them in childhood.But as they grow into adulthood, they need to learn to choose when to use this superpower, or when to have a boundary.My wife, Lindsay, first began learning about boundaries when she was experiencing burnout as a young, working woman. She never said no, always went above and beyond the requirements of her job. And at the end of the night, she was exhausted. After awhile, she started to become upset—upset at herself, and even a her situation.Within the Big 5 personality types test, Lindsay scores high in Trait Agreeableness. People who are high in that trait value relationships, are empathic and helpful. They will do things they don’t want to, merely to maintain their relationships. Women typically test higher in the trait than men.I see many women come into my practice who have high markers of agreeableness—they haven’t found (or been able to express) their boundaries. They have issues with chronic pain, problems with expressing anger, either within themselves, or towards others. It’s also common that these people have no idea that their “helpfulness” is causing them huge amounts of physical pain. People who are caretakers, who feel looped in to being someone’s source for happiness, life, wellbeing, often get looped into these types of situations if they don’t have a strong sense of self. Obviously, many people are caretakers for their relatives. I’m not talking about being a nice person versus being selfish, or being a caretaker versus letting someone you love be alone.I’m talking about the emotional position of your heart during those situations. Are you able to say no when you need to? Are you asking for help when you need to? Are you taking time for yourself? Are you in pain? What is your emotional state when someone calls and asks for help? Do you check in with yourself before you say yes?How do you know when you need to start establishing boundaries?Typically, with people who have no boundaries, the resentment will build and build, and they will do something drastic to relieve their pain—cut off the relationship, quit caretaking altogether, stop being friends with the person, get a divorce. Or the resentment will build up in their body, causing either depression (as the anger is turned inward) or body pain (as the body carries the burden).The truth is though, that when someone with no boundaries says yes, it might be ingenuine. They are saying yes out of guilt and obligation, not out of a true desire to say yes.When we do things out of obligation or compulsion, we lose passion for that task, and begin to build resentment. If we aren’t making the choice to say yes, we are thus protecting our ability to say yes to our passions, joys and desires.Good fences make good neighborsAs you’re setting up your “fence,” you want to keep the bad out, but it will also keep the good in.When we talk to people about boundaries, they are often scared of beginning to say no.When you learn to say no, and you begin to make new friendships with people, you will tend to set higher standards for how you want to be treated during those relationships.How to set up healthy boundariesLook at the people you have a hard time saying “no” to. Is it your boss? Someone in authority? Someone who is a family member?What do you fear losing from them if you say no? Is it love? Respect? Provision? For a boundary-less person, being a pacifier has some advantage. Maybe you were the peacekeeper in your house growing up. Maybe you weren’t allowed to say no. Maybe abuse was involved. Or maybe you were simply a sensitive, sweet child who heard repetitively that it was a good thing to be kind and helpful. Whatever the case, there is some sort of relational reward to say yes, and to keep the peace. Pay attention to what you’re getting out of saying yes to that person.Become aware of body sensations you're having when you think of setting boundaries, of saying no to someone. Do you feel tightness in your chest? Numbness in your hands? Is your heart racing? Do you have anxiety?Have a pre-programmed response for when someone asks you for something. Lindsay likes to say, “Can I get back to you later with an answer?” It allows her to take off the social pressure of saying yes immediately, and be able to respond with a truthful answer later on.Before you say yes to anything, think about your ultimate goals and boundaries. We all have a purpose, we are all unique. If we spend all of our time doing only what other people want us to do, we won’t accomplish our goals. When we start to focus on ourselves more, we can see where the opportunities to say yes, or no, will take us, and we can see if they line up with our ultimate goals.Have safe people in your life, so that when you don’t have the strength to say no or speak up, you can talk to them. You can ask for help. It could be a therapist or just someone you can feel safe with. Lindsay has a group of women she has talked to once a week for 12 years. On that phone call, they discuss what they are dealing with and how they are growing.Have conversations with your current friends where you set boundaries. I go on walks with people all of the time. I often ask if we can switch topics on the way back. Normally I would be the listener the whole walk, but with my new boundary, it lets me also talk about something that’s going on in my life. People are always responsive when I ask for this, and it’s always positive. People who are higher empathy have a harder time asking for what they need.Throughout our lives, we have new possibilities for relationships every day. We can take care with adding those who are good, positive, safe people, who will understand our “no” and will allow us to uphold our new boundaries. When you’re looking for new, good friends, look for people who are full of grace. They are also full of truth—they are kind and open, but also honest.Parenting and boundariesChildren are difficult to have boundaries with. It can be because we love them and want to give them the world, because we know they aren’t fully emotionally developed, or because we want to ease some of our own exhaustion by giving in!One key to holding our boundaries when our kids throw temper tantrums is to respond to tears with empathy, not just say “yes” to ease our discomfort. If we resonate with them, it will help both us and them. For example, if your child is screaming and crying about leaving the park early, try saying, “I know it must feel hard for you to leave something that is so fun. We will come back again. Nevertheless right now, it’s time to go. At home, you have toys too and can play with them.” This offers empathy, hope and it keeps a boundary.If we give in and let them stay, we are teaching them a bad habit. We should never set a boundary that we aren’t willing to follow through on. It helped Lindsay and I to remember the statistic that even giving in to 1 out of every 8 tantrums taught the child that tantrums worked, and they would win. It reinforced their negative behavior.If we make them leave and don’t care that they are upset, we aren’t recognizing their emotions and are being unempathic.Letting children feel stress, and being empathic and reassuring when they’ve completed the task, is more helpful for them as they grow. If you step in every time and relieve the stress (such as not making them go to school when they don’t want to), you’re not preparing them for adulthood.Keep your boundaries, and express empathy.Boundaries in romantic relationshipsDating is hard work. There are several boundaries to navigate during dating. When you have talks about boundaries in dating, if they don’t respond appropriately, you definitely need to evaluate whether you want to continue dating them or not.Be honest and open right from the start.Physical boundariesThis is a hot topic in society today—consent, verbal consent, being able to talk and have conversations. Many of my patients do not want to follow through with physical relationships with people, but they have a hard time saying the actual word “no” when they are in the moment. Define what you want and don’t want, long before you get into another relationship. If someone does not respect your “no” that should be a deal breaker.Spiritual boundariesDefine what you want and don’t want, what you believe spiritually. What are your worldview deal breakers? Defining your deal breakers and writing them down, and asking your friends to help keep you accountable, is important.If you are Muslim, Jewish, or Christian, make sure that you know what you want in a partner, and that you aren’t letting go of boundaries that will one day matter to you again, just so you can date someone.Conversational boundariesPart of dating now is “ghosting,” or shutting down communications when you don’t want to have real conversations about how you’re experiencing someone. I believe this has developed unhealthy communication patterns in society.When Lindsay and I were dating, she almost broke up with me because I demonstrated some anxious behaviors during our dinners together. I would shake my leg, or eat three loaves of bread in ten minutes! She nearly ended it without telling me why—she just thought I was odd.But when she talked to her friends, they urged her to communicate how she was experiencing me. When she told me what she was feeling, and I told her I was behaving that way becuase I was nervous—I was so into her! She was pleasantly surprised and we continued dating. Now, we have been married for 6 years and have two children together.When you’re dating, make it a point to not shut down just because you’re having a negative experience of someone (if that experience isn’t too bad, of course). Try communicating to the person what you’re feeling. This will go a long way in setting up the relationship (and changing your personal habits) to developing positive communication patterns.Dealing with relationships and changePeople view consistency as a positive. That means that as humans, we are wired to strive for create an equilibrium in our relationships. And agreeable, boundary-less people strive for consistency in behavior more than others.When someone that didn’t have boundaries starts saying “no,” the people in their lives start to sit up and notice what they would deem “inconsistency.” The first time you say you cannot help with that thing you’ve helped with every week, they may be nice about it. But the second and third time, they’ll start to say that sentence we all fear…”you’ve changed…”When you grow in your boundaries, there will be people who don’t like them. They will shame you, yell at you, push every button that they can to get you to comply in the way that you used to.Understand that by saying no, you may not be as helpful in relationships, volunteer organizations, or work situations as you used to be.But, by saying no, you will also free up your time to be able to accomplish what only you can accomplish in your life. Saying no to trivial things that are daily time-vampires will free you up to do the things you are passionate about. That passion will grow, your freedom will grow, and you’ll be able to really start to feel in control of your own life and schedule again. People will respect you.
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticBelow is a detailed review of the podcast episode, with most of the content that Dr. Michael Cummings and I (Dr. Puder) discussed. Special thanks to Arvy Wuysang (MS4) for his work in the initial transcription and organization. The history & nuances of bipolar illnessBipolar Illness was first discovered by Emil Kraepelin, who was also the first to describe schizophrenia in the 19th century.Kraepelin noticed another major mental illness in which people had episodic disturbances of mood. He saw either elevation of mood and increased energy, along with a decreased need for sleep, and often impulsive or psychotically related behaviors.Then, the same patient would experience the opposite, sleeping through the day, demonstrating lowered energy and depression. These patients were noted to have normal function in-between these episodes. Nuances of the bipolar illness diagnosisThe Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) identifies bipolar illness primarily by the presence of at least one episode of mood elevation to help distinguish it from unipolar or major depressive disorder.Here are some defining symptoms:Patients are fairly normal between episodes.When they’re manic, their mood elevates their lack of sleep. They will sleep four to five hours at first, later progresses to no sleep at all on a nightly basis.Every true manic episode will end in three places: hospitalization of some type, jail, or death.Initial peak is in the 20s and 30s. Although, people suspect that many individuals who become bipolar don’t initially declare themselves.They often present with a series of recurrent depressive episodes and then, at some point, they exhibit a period of mood elevation meeting the criteria for either hypomania or mania, which earns them the diagnostic label of bipolar mood disorder. There are two types. Type I, in which the person has fully evolved to mania or mood elevation and fully evolved episodes of depression. Type II, in which the person may have a milder form of mood elevation but still has fully evolved periods of depression.Grandiosity is a major part of mania. Although historically some people with bipolar illness have often been incredibly productive during episodes of mood elevation, before they become disorganized or psychotic.There is often impaired judgment during manic episodes. For example, someone who is manic will propose to 5 different girls, max out multiple credit cards, buy extra houses/cars/boats, etc.Bipolar and the limbic systemUnderlying pathophysiology is centered around the limbic system. Involves the temporal lobes and and structures which swings upward into the mamillary bodies into the anterior cingulate gyrus, which then projects forward into the frontal lobe. That circuit goes through periods of hypo-activity or depression in people who are bipolar. They have depressed metabolic rates of the system upto 30 to 40 % below normal. During periods of mood elevation, there is an increase in metabolic activity and instability in that limbic circuit. The mood is an element of that, but the person’s overall activity, sleep-wake cycle, circadian rhythms, along with all the things related to the functioning of the limbic system are disturbed in bipolar illness. Bipolar illness and sleep patternsThere are some models of the illness that suggest that perhaps the core of the pathophysiology of bipolar illness is an abnormally regulated biological clock.In most of us, the nerve cells, the neurons that make up the biological clock, are very tightly linked to each other in terms of their operation. They literally form two pacemakers or oscillators in a very small structure that sits right on top of the optic chiasm called the supraoptic nucleus.Normally all of our circadian rhythms are regulated by this master clock. In healthy people, it’s very difficult to get the two oscillators to separate from each other. In bipolar people, those oscillators drift apart relatively easily. Something as simple as loss of sleep during the latter half of the night will cause them to diverge from each other.When that begins to happen, the overall functioning of the limbic system begins to oscillate in an unstable manner.People have looked at things like disturbed sleep as being a very common precipitous of a mood episode. If somebody has a difficult day or disturbing event, and they’re genetically vulnerable to being bipolar, they may not sleep well at night, and the next night they may not need to sleep as much. The night after that, they really don’t sleep, and then their mood begins to elevate and another episode is initiated.Genetic markers of bipolar illness.Bipolar is typically passed on genetically, and can be linked with other similar markers of illness. Around 100 genetic markers have been linked to bipolar illness.They overlap with schizophrenia in part, but not entirely. People with bipolar illness have a much more normal brain in terms of development then do people with schizophrenia. But, there appears to be an inherent defect in the operation of the limbic system elements with these periodic repeating of overactivity and underactivity, plausibly related to the core biological clock.Mood stabilizers have an effect in terms of decreasing and stabilizing the activity of the limbic system. They tend to push that clock back toward being phase-linked or operating together as a single oscillator, rather than as divergent oscillators. Mood StabilizersHistory of LithiumThe very first mood stabilizer discovered was lithium. It was very popular in the 19th century for the treatment of gout because it decreases uric acid crystals.In the 1940s, a psychiatrist named John Cade (1912-1980) served in World War II and was a prisoner of war for three years. After the war, he worked in a repatriation hospital in Australia and became fascinated with bipolar illness. At the time, he looked at the earlier history and thought that uric acid somehow caused bipolar illness. That turned out to be a wrong hypothesis. But, it led him to use lithium urate, a soluble form of uric acid, in hamsters, to see what would happen. The hamsters got lethargic and sleepy upon administration.He decided to give his lithium compound to ten patients—six of them were bipolar, four of them were schizophrenic. They all became less agitated, though the schizophrenics didn’t change all that much. However, all of the bipolar patients’ moods stabilized. It’s amazing how he didn’t kill any of these patients in spite of giving them gigantic doses of lithium. His initial dose was 1300 mg, three times a day. Most of the patients got ill with that. If you give somebody too much lithium, they develop nausea, tremor, and diarrhea. You can make them very seriously ill with lithium because it has a very narrow therapeutic index. The distance between therapeutic and toxic is not very far. Optimal dose for most patients 0.6 - 1.0 mmol/L. Toxicity usually begins at about 1.5 mmol/L, serious toxicity begins at about 2.0 mmol/L.At Loma Linda and at patton State Hospital, most patients start at 900 mg at night, obtain a plasma concentration five to seven days later, and then adjust the dose.Dosing lithiumLithium should never be given in divided doses.The kidneys is spared by having a long trough period between lithium doses, so it is best to give it at bedtime.Lithium tends to decrease urine concentrating capacity. Almost everyone who takes lithium, their urine output will increase by about 20%, and their water intake will correspondingly increase by about 20% to compensate. There are a few people who get much more severe diabetes insipidus, an insensitivity to anti-diuretic hormone in the kidney.Over the course of many years, about 5% of people who take lithium will develop mild to moderate degrees of renal failure or insufficiency. That risk is minimized by keeping the lithium level < 1.0 meq/L and also by giving Lithium only once a day. Lithium and suicidalityIt’s clear that lithium reduces suicidality, which may be a product of its ability to inhibit impulsivity. Suicide rates are substantially lower when people take lithium.In the healthy population, when they’ve done studies in areas with very low concentrations of lithium in the groundwater, rates of suicide and rates of homicide are lower in areas with lithium in the groundwater compared to areas that don’t have lithium in the groundwater.The amount of lithium that people are getting from the groundwater would be roughly the equivalent of taking 3 milligrams of lithium a day. This means that in the healthy non-bipolar non-mood disordered brain, it doesn’t take very much lithium to make people somewhat less violent.When would you take someone off Lithium?The best measure for lithium is to measure the eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate). If the eGFR declines to 50 or less, the person should not take lithium.The other common adverse effect that lithium has is to make the person hypothyroid.Lithium tends to decrease the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone. The good news is that if it makes somebody hypothyroid, we can easily replace the thyroid hormone with Levothyroxine, a synthetic analogue of the hormone. Frankly, your body doesn’t care whether you get your thyroid hormone from your thyroid gland or from a tablet.Dermatologic side effectsPsoriasis is a contraindication to lithium use. It will greatly worsen psoriasis.If the person is prone to cystic acne, lithium will typically cause a worsening of cystic acne.One of the effects of lithium is to increase oil secretion in the skin. That can lead to both increased psoriatic plaques and cystic acne.History of other mood stabilizersThe reason we have other treatments for bipolar illness, is largely the result of the work of Robert Post.Post was a psychiatrist who worked at NIMH and was doing an unrelated experiment. He was looking at kindling, or increased sensitivity of the limbic system, by putting electrodes into mouse temporal lobes and giving them a one second electrical stimulus once a day.Initially, when you do that, nothing happens.But about day two or three, the mouse will have a complex partial seizure, a temporal lobe seizure. If you keep doing it pretty soon the mouse will start having spontaneous seizures. Robert Post looked at that and thought that the nerve cells of the limbic system can become more and more sensitive, more and more hyperactive, less and less well-controlled. He thought that he could block that effect, in terms of seizures, with anticonvulsants. He then, made a leap in logic, thought that perhaps mood episodes are acting like electrical stimulus causing kindling in the limbic system for people with recurrent mood episodes, like in bipolar patients.He decided to treat some bipolar patients with an anti-epileptic.The first medicine he used was Carbamazepine (Tegretol). Tegretol is a very difficult drug to use because it induces its own metabolism, so the level keeps falling. It also is fairly toxic with respect to the bone marrow. So, you have to watch out for loss of white cells, red cells, platelets.He fairly soon turned to another anti-epileptic, valproic acid, which is a branched-chain fatty acid. He found that it was also effective in treating bipolar illness. Turned out that compared to lithium, valproic acid was more effective if the person was a rapid-cycling bipolar patient having more than four episodes a year. (Although lithium remain superior if the person is a classic type I bipolar patient.)In young women in general, valproic acid it can be problematic because it can cause Polycystic Ovary Disease.In pregnancy, it causes not only a risk of neural tube defects such as spina bifida, it also decreases the intellectual capacity of the offspring by about 10 IQ points, and roughly doubles the risk of autism in the offspring. It also causes hirsutism and weight gain.Psychiatry has pretty much examined every anti-epileptic introduced since to see if it had mood stabilizing properties.Lamotrigine (Lamictal) for example, does treat bipolar depression and does stabilize mood cycling, but has almost no benefit with respect to mood elevation. In fact, Lamotrigine as a monotherapy may actually cause switches into mania in some patients.People have looked at Topiramate and found that it may have some prophylactic capability but doesn’t seem very effective at all if the person is already manic or depressed. If their mood is already stable, and you’re just trying to decrease the cycling, it may have some benefit.Lamictal, used as a mood stabilizer, may have gotten more use than it should because although it does have antidepressant properties in bipolar illness, it is certainly not a benign drug.People were initially attracted to it because there’s not a lot of laboratory monitoring involved. The plasma concentrations of lamotrigine don’t correlate very well with its efficacy because it is very rapidly cleared from the blood compartment and taken into tissue. It’s easy to administer and when you’re not using it for seizures, usually can be dosed all at bedtime.It does carry a risk of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, which is severe malignant rash, and which the person winds up looking like a burn victim because their skin literally dies and falls off.It also can cause lymphohistiocytosis, which is a similar autoimmune process, but involving the blood vessels and internal organs. Luckily, that is rare, but it's also typically a life threatening response to the drugThe risk of the side effects above are increased by titrating the drug to rapidly. They discovered the side effects when they were using the drug initially for seizures. They were often increasing the dose by a hundred milligrams a day starting at 100 mg, and by day four, the person was on 400 milligrams. They found a 9% increased rate of malignant rash. If you slow down and don’t go faster than around 25 to 50 milligrams a week in the titration, the risk is reduced, but it’s still not zero. It’s probably less than one half of 1%, but it is a caution.The other caution with the drug of course in bipolar patients is it sometimes is not a very good monotherapy because it doesn’t provide any protection against mood elevation. It seems to be effective in treating the depressed phase of the illness, but not the manic or hypomanic phase.Oxcarbazepine has flunked multiple trials as a mood stabilizer. Oxcarbazepine differs from Carbamazepine in only one bond. In carbamazepine the bond between carbons 10 and 11 is an epoxide bond, while in oxcarbazepine that same bond is an ester bond.It appears, however, that the mood stabilizing properties of carbamazepine result from the epoxide metabolite, and of course oxcarbamazepine does not produce that metabolite.Oxcarbazepine can, in some individuals, reduce impulsivity, which seems to be a truism across the anti-epileptic drugs, but it’s not an effective bipolar treatment.There was only one study looking at it in forensic settings for impulsive or violent patients. It was a self-funded single investigator study and it’s been the only study that was ever produced, never replicated. It was suspicious in that the patients were all outpatients, self-recruited via newspaper ad. It’s database even for impulsivity and so forth is pretty limited. It does have some application in that regard, but it is not as good as people hoped.People became enamored with it simply because it was easier to use than carbamazepine, which isn’t to say that it’s benign. It induces hepatic enzymes, it causes dangerous hyponatremia in about 2.5% of the people who take it.There haven’t been any really good studies identifying it as an anxiolytic. Like most anti-epileptics, it can be sedating and somewhat calming, but you could get the same effect from literally any of the anti-epileptic drugs, probably safer would be gabapentin. Antipsychotic use as mood stabilizerSome of the second generation antipsychotics have also shown mood stabilizing properties, albeit as an addon to a primary or classic mood stabilizer. This include drugs like Aripiprazole, Brexpiprazole, Cariprazine, Olanzapine, and Quetiapine. Quetiapine in particular is effective in treating bipolar depression, as is Lurasidone.Antidepressants as mood stabilizersDo not give an antidepressant to a bipolar depressed patient!There are now a host of studies suggesting that antidepressants offer little or no benefit with respect to depression in bipolar illness. It serves only to increase the rate of mood cycling and to risk a switch into mania.Cognitive side effects of mood stabilizersLithium typically causes cognitive impairment only if the plasma concentration is too high, in which case it can cause decreased brain function all the way up to coma if the concentration is high enough. However, lithium used at therapeutic concentrations actually is neurotrophic.It’s been used now in some demented patients with modest results. MRI scans will show a thickening of the cortex if you put somebody on lithium.In contrast to lithium, antiepileptic drugs almost universally tend to dull cognitive performance. For example, one of the tip-offs that you’re giving the person too much topiramate is they start to lose the ability to find nouns, they become anomic.Barbiturate and Benzodiazepine use in bipolar illnessBarbiturates were introduced in 1903. At that time, they were essentially the only psychiatric medication available. They treated literally everything that involved mood elevation or agitation with a barbiturate.In the middle ages, individuals that seemed to have manic episodes as we understand it today, were considered witches. They were given doses of sedation that would bring a normal person down. These manic individuals, however, would not be sedated with those doses.This is described in the book The Witches’ Hammer. Most of these tests were designed so that if you were the accused, you most likely won’t pass them. For example, one of the tests was being tied up and thrown into a mill pond. If you drowned, you were concluded not to be a witch, but of course you were dead. If you manage to float and you survived, you were concluded to have done so via witchcraft, in which case they retrieved you from the water and subsequently burned you.Frankly, psychiatry has come a long way!Importance of sleep hygiene in bipolar illnessOne of the most important things to teach bipolar patients is to emphasize the importance of sleep hygiene. They should go to bed at the same time every night. It’s dangerous for them to casually stay up to watch tv or a movie etc. That may be a setup for them to have the next episode of mood disturbance.If they’re having difficulty sleeping, this is a group in which long term use of one of the Z drugs may be appropriate.Dr. Cummings’ personal favorite in that group is Eszopiclone (Lunesta), because it has a longer half-life. It’s half-life is around 4-6 hours, so it’s long enough that the person will actually stay asleep. It also has a broad dose range, 1 mg - 8 mg at night.It’s been used to treat primary insomnia in some individuals for up to decades without development of complete tolerance, or resulting in any withdrawal syndrome if the medication is stopped.Education for bipolar patientsPatients and families need to realize that the more episodes of illness they have, the more resistant to treatment the illness will become, and the less responsive the illness will become to medications. This idea goes back to Robert Post’s study on kindling.Additionally, when people have more episodes, the cycle tends to become progressively shorter. If they were initially having an episode every two or three years, it may suddenly occur every year, to having multiple episodes for a year.One of the major costs for both families and individuals who are bipolar is that severe depression or severe mania is incredibly disruptive to the individual’s life. It can destroy their marriage, their job, and cause large setbacks.I (Dr. Puder) will bring patient's families in, get them on board with a plan to identify early symptoms such as decreased sleep, increased energy, and change in physical activity. I want the family to keep in close contact with me if these things are developing, and I will alway get them in within the week. Role of psychotherapy in bipolar illnessFor many bipolar patients, the common pathway into a mood episode is an environmental stressor that causes sleep disturbance, which then sets off the instability that they have innately in their internal clock, and then they’re off into a mood episode. Teaching the person good sleep hygiene, teaching them to be better able to cope with stressors is crucial.Psychotherapy can also train them to become more self aware, so that they may be able to spot earlier changes in their mood and recognize an impending episode sooner. This allows them to seek for intervention before things get out of hand.Focus on developing healthy habits like exercise and healthy diet.
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.In this week’s episode of the podcast, Dr. Michael Cummings and I talk about the history of antidepressants, and their use in overcoming depression and anxiety disorders. Below is a short blog on the topic to complement the podcast and subsequently I you can find detailed notes on the topic further below.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, Podfanatic What is depression?The overarching term “depression” is characterized by feelings of sadness and hopelessness, anxiety, and loss of pleasure. But there are many different types of depression and depressive disorders:Psychotic depressionBipolar disorder with depressionSeasonal affective disorderMajor depressionChronic depression (dysthymia)Postpartum depressionPremenstrual dysphoric disorderAtypical depressionMelancholic depressionDepression due to a medical illness or medicationSome symptoms of depression are:Weight gain or lossSadnessAnxietyAgitationSocial isolationSleep problemsGuiltLoss of pleasureLoss of interest in activitiesMood swingsMajor depressionMajor depression is characterized by a continuous feeling of sadness—it does not lift for long periods of time. The average length of an episode of major depression, if not treated, last around 11 months. People with major depressive disorder often had an average of four to eight episodes during their lifetime.Each episode of major depression usually makes the next episode more likely.The annual prevalence rate for major depression estimated in the US and in Europe ranges from 2-7%. But, if somebody has an episode of major depression, the odds that they have a second episode at some point in their life rises to almost 50%. Then, for each episode they have after that, the probability of the next one becomes more likely.For people who had recurrent episodes of major depression, by the time they were in their 50s, 60s, or 70s, they had often become chronically depressed or apathetic; their life had deteriorated significantly.Melancholic depressionMelancholic depression is at the severe end of the depressive spectrum.These people have a severe loss of enjoyment, and they usually lack energy. They often develop mood congruent psychotic symptoms, such as delusions that they are guilty for everything in the world.This tends to be the most resistant form of depression. When severe. people who suffer with melancholic depression sometimes require electroconvulsive therapy to snap them out of a depressive state.Is depression a chemical imbalance? People with recurring bouts of major depression can actually experience anatomical damage to the cortex and the spine, because depression is caused by, and can also cause further, chemical changes in the brain. How does this work?One main marker for major depressive occurence is a rise in the release of corticotropin from the pituitary, which eventually stimulates our adrenal glands to produce more cortisol.There is a 30-40% decline in the rate of metabolic activity among neurons. Lowered metabolic activity among neurons.There is a steep decline in the production of neurotrophic factors, proteins that promote neuron activity and cell growth in the brain. As a consequence, there is a thinning of the cortex, a loss of the dendritic spines on neurons.The history of antidepressantsDoctors used to believe depression was norepinephrine or serotonin deficiency. We now view depression as the inability of the limbic system to be modulated by the neurotransmitters.Antidepressant medications target this problem by increasing the ability of these molecules that deal with our emotions, motivations and memory to do what they need to do.Before antidepressantsPrior to the discovery of antipsychotics and and antidepressants, depressed and anxious patients were sent to restful places, or asylums. In the late 19th century, the number of asylums surged.They used psychoanalysis and psychotherapy to treat patients, but there was no medicinal treatment for psychiatric issues. They sometimes used chemically induced convulsive therapy to induce a grand mal seizure two to three times a week, and it was quite a brutal treatment. Electrical induction of convulsive therapy came about in the 1940s. It was widely used in both mood disorders and psychosis.As a result of these two treatments, people had broken bones and muscle damage. Because of that, electroconvulsive therapy developed a horrible reputation.The treatment was later reformed in terms of paralyzing people and using anesthesia prior to treatment. These steps made electroconvulsive therapy much more humane than it originally was. Now people don’t experience the side effects they would have back then. It still remains the most effective treatment there is for severe melancholic or catatonic depression.As I discussed in a previous blog on psychopharmacology, in 1940 the original antipsychotic was originally an antihistamine. When doctors noticed the sedative effect it had, they started prescribing it for pre-surgery anxiety. It was the first time doctors prescribed a medication to treat mood.In 1951, Dr. Roland Kuhn discovered that imipramine, a drug originally tried for psychosis, was not in fact effective in treating psychosis. He did found that imipramine was effective in improving mood and anxiety symptoms.This led to to the discovery of other tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, nortriptyline, and desipramine.First generation antidepressantsAfter World War II, there was a surplus of hydrazine missile fuel leftover. People began experimenting with hydrazine as a base compound for development of drugs.One of the first drugs that came out of that endeavor was Isocarboxazid, which was initially used to treat tuberculosis.It turned out that a few people who were being treated for tuberculosis happened to be bipolar and became manic while taking isocarboxazid, which led to the discovery of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).MAOIs stop the breakdown of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. MAOIs stop that enzyme from removing those chemicals from the brain. The result is more balanced neurotransmitters—and a lack of depression.Still, the possible side effects including incredibly high blood pressure when eating certain foods made scientists keep searching for better alternatives.SSRI antidepressantsSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were introduced to the market in 1987, with the introduction of Fluoxetine. The SSRIs were almost instantly popular because they were much safer.These drugs increase the amount of serotonin available in the brain.The SSRI became very widely used very quickly for treatment of depression.They have even been found useful because the increased serotonin input to the limbic system they create (the part of our brain that deals with motivation, learning, emotions and memory) decreases the amount of anxiety and vigilance that the person has.SSRI was also found to be effective for:Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)Social phobiasImpulse based disorders (like binge eating)If someone was still resistant to SSRI medication and is still depressed, electroconvulsive therapy is still the best option available.When do you prescribe antidepressants?If the initial episode of depression is not severe to the point that it’s inducing suicidal ideation or impairing their ability to engage in activities of daily living, then psychotherapy and exercise should be the first treatment.If the following statements are true, antidepressants could be prescribed:The person doesn’t respond to exercise positively with fewer depressive symptomsPsychotherapy does not seem to be helpingThe depression is becoming severeTheir family is genetically tended towards depressionOverall, about 40% of the probability of becoming depressed is genetically determined, the other 60% arising from the environment.There are also important gender differences, women during their reproductive years have about twice the rate of major depression compared to men.If somebody has recurrent episodes of depression, an antidepressant should be considered, and possibly continued indefinitely. However I often recommend for these patients a combination of treatments including exercise, diet, effective therapy, and over time can get them on lower doses or less medications.Below is a detailed review of the episode, with most of the content. Thanks Arvy Wuysang (MS4) for your help with this!History of AntidepressantsThe investigation of antihistamines leading to the discovery of promethazine, chlorpromazine brought on a decade of intensive discovery and investigation of different antipsychotic compounds.Swiss Psychiatrist, Dr. Roland Kuhn (1912 - 2005) discovered the Tricyclic Antidepressant, Imipramine.His experiments with Imipramine led him to the discovery that it was not effective in treating psychosis. However, he found that Imipramine was effective in improving mood and anxiety symptoms.This led to to the discovery of other Tricyclic Antidepressants, both tertiary and secondary amines, such as amitriptyline, nortriptyline, and desipramine.As an after effect of World War II, there was a great amount of hydrazine missile fuel leftover. People began experimenting with hydrazine as a base compound for development of drugs.One of the first drugs that came out of that endeavor was Isocarboxazid, which was initially used to treat Tuberculosis.It turned out that a few people who were being treated for TB happened to be Bipolar and became manic while taking Isocarboxazid, which led to the discovery of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs).How were people treated for depression before the discovery of MAOIs?Sent to restful places in the country, the asylum movement of the late 19th century.Psychotherapy, psychoanalysisConvulsive therapy, discovered by the psychiatrist Von Meduna in Hungary.Was not originally electrically induced, was chemically induced convulsive therapy instead, quite a brutal treatment.Electrical induction of convulsive therapy came about in the 1940s. It became widely used in both mood disorders and psychosis.The treatment was later reformed in terms of paralyzing people and using anesthesia prior to treatment. These steps made Electroconvulsive therapy a much more humane treatment. It still remains the most effective treatment there is for severe melancholic depression.There were no effective pharmacological treatments for depression before the MAOIs.Winston Churchill, was thought to have depression and was treated with Amphetamines, which was later known to be ineffective as an antidepressant.Amphetamines or Methylphenidate are still occasionally used in anergic depressions, such as in HIV, or in the elderly depressed person who has a severe lack of energy as part of their depressive illness, but in combination with antidepressants.If someone with melancholic depression does not get treatment, how does the progression of their disease look like?A fairly negative development. The average length of an episode of major depression, if not treated, last around 11 months. People often had an average of four to eight episodes during their lifetime.Each episode of major depression makes the next episode more likely. The annual prevalence rate for major depression estimated in the US and in Europe ranges from 2-7%. But, if somebody has an episode of major depression, the odds that they have a second episode at some point in their life rises to almost 50%. Then, for each episode they have after that, the probability of the next one becomes more likely. For people who had recurrent episodes of major depression, by the time they were in their 50s, 60s, or 70s, they had often become chronically depressed, apathetic; their life had deteriorated significantly.What physiological effects within the brain contributes to the greater likelihood of a subsequent episode of depression?Major depression, aside from changing neurotransmitter signaling, reduces the metabolic rate of neurons in the brain. There is a 30-40% decline in the rate of metabolic activity among neurons. There is a steep decline in the production of neurotrophic factors, proteins that promote neuron activity and cell growth in the brain. As a consequence, there is a thinning of the cortex, a loss of the dendritic spines on neurons. There was evidence that although recovery after major depression is nearly back to original baseline, particularly in recurrent depression, or in people who alternate between major depression and a more minor form of depression called dysthymia, their brain may undergo gradually increasing anatomical damage (cortex and dendritic spines). The accumulating pathology appears to set them up for the next episode, to be more vulnerable to stress diathesis and the occurrence of the next episode of depression.One of the key chief characteristics of major depression is a rise in the release of Corticotropin Releasing Hormones (CRH), which in turn produces an increase in the release of Adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol.Cortisol functions as a stress hormone. The intent is to help counterbalance stress and return us to a baseline state. However, in major depression that positive benefit fails, and essentially the person’s brain winds up being exposed to chronically elevated levels of cortisol, which has an involutional effect on DNA transcription in cells in the brain, particularly in the limbic system. This have been suggested as the source of treatment resistance as people develop more episodes of depression.How does melancholic depression differ from other types of depression?Melancholic depression is at the severe end of the depressive spectrum. These people have a severe loss of enjoyment, they’re anhedonic, they lack energy. They often develop mood congruent psychotic symptoms, such as delusions that they are guilty for everything in the world. They have very pronounced negative rumination. They lose interest in food. In fact, if they’re not treated, they just sort of curl up and die.Tends to be the most resistant form of depression. These people often wind up requiring electroconvulsive therapy to them out of that depressive state.Depression comes in a range of severity. Dysthymic disorder, is the chronic milder form of depression. Major depression, starts just above dysthymia, and progresses to Melancholic depression.How severe of a depression warrants a treatment with antidepressants?If the initial episode of depression is not severe to the point that it’s inducing suicidal ideation or impairing their ability to engage in activities of daily living, then psychotherapy should be the first treatment. Psychotherapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and brief analytic psychotherapy have been demonstrated to be effective in treating depression. Exercise also can be a benefit in mild to moderate depressions.If, however, the person doesn’t respond to those treatments, or the depression is becoming severe, or in particular, if this is somebody whose family is somewhat genetically loaded for depression, then treatment with antidepressants becomes a larger consideration. Overall, it’s thought that about 40% of the probability of becoming depressed is genetically determined, the other 60% arising from the environment. There are also important gender differences, women during their reproductive years have about twice the rate of major depression compared to men. Premenarche and postmenopausal women have the same rate of depression as men, suggesting that hormonal cycling during the reproductive years may add an additional burden in terms of vulnerability to depression in women.If somebody has recurrent episodes of depression, the thinking is very much along the lines of they should be on an antidepressant and it should be continued indefinitely. It used to be that if somebody recovered from depression, then after a year, everyone would be tapered off and discontinued. That changed when people began to recognize the progressive nature of major depression. Each episode makes the next one more likely, and the more episodes people have, the more resistant it is to treatment. We should be working to avoid the circumstance in which we now have an elderly depressed person who has lost the capacity to respond to most of the tools we have to work with. That’s a very difficult position to be. These are cases where we find ECT to be the only treatment that works.The advent of SSRIsThe first antidepressants, the TCAs, were never a comfortable medication class in usage. This is largely because these drugs are cardiotoxic at relatively low concentrations. Six to eight times the therapeutic concentration is a potentially lethal concentration. So, taking a week’s worth at one time stood a pretty good chance of killing somebody. In a population prone to suicidal thoughts, that’s not a very comfortable position to be in. In the case of MAOIs, if the person is exposed to tyramine from food, or to sympathomimetic agents, cold medications in many cases, can produce hypertensive crisis with blood pressures that can cause vascular damage or death.The SSRIs were almost instantly popular after the introduction of Fluoxetine, in large part not because they were more effective than the older antidepressants, but because they were much safer. These drugs selectively inhibit the reuptake transporter for serotonin, thereby increasing the amount of serotonin available in the brain. But by and large, they don’t do a great deal else that is toxic or likely to produce problems. So that if somebody overdoses on an SSRI antidepressant alone, it’s almost impossible to kill the person. If you mix it with an agent that has other means for increasing serotonin, it can produce serotonin syndrome, which can cause death, but that’s a relatively rare negative outcome.The SSRI became very widely used very quickly for treatment of both major depression and dysthymia. For a host of anxiety disorders they have been found useful because increased serotonin input to the limbic system, particularly the anterior temporal lobe and the amygdala, decreases the amount of anxiety and vigilance that the person has. SSRI was also found to be effective for PTSD, OCD, GAD, social phobias, and even in impulse based disorders like binge eating.The SSRI antidepressants account for about 70% of the antidepressant prescriptions in the United States each year. They are as effective as the mix serotonin norepinephrine antidepressants, in mild to moderate levels of depression. They tend to become less effective than mixed mechanism agents in severe and melancholic depressions.The current model for depression have moved away from the basic idea of norepinephrine or serotonin deficiency. We now view depression as the inability of the limbic system to be modulated by the neurotransmitters. Antidepressants target this dysfunction by increasing the modulatory range of these molecules. It may be that in more severe depression, using a single lever to try to push the limbic system back into operating normally just isn’t as effective as using more than one lever.What are our treatment options for patients with melancholic depression that are resistant to antidepressants?ECT would be the best option in severe melancholic depression. There are other adjuncts available that have been looked at that show promise. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has shown positive benefit in terms of augmenting antidepressants, as has vagus nerve stimulation in some chronic recurrent depressions. Combining the antidepressant with an effective psychotherapy has been shown to have additive benefits. In many cases of depression, it calls for a multimodal intervention.One of the caveats with the antidepressants is that their efficacy is more limited than we would like it to be. If you look at most antidepressant studies, they report effectiveness in around 60 to 65 percent of samples based on the definition of response as a 50 percent reduction in depressive symptoms. If you’re severely depressed, it’s great to have a 50% reduction, but that doesn’t mean that you’re well. If you look at how many people go into remission in those studies, you’re now talking about numbers down in the range of about a third. That’s not a very satisfactory outcome if you’re the depressed patient. So, our antidepressant treatments indeed do have limits.We’ve looked at ways of augmenting antidepressants. Combining antidepressants with different mechanisms. Augmentation with mood stabilizers like lithium. In women in particular, supplementation with thyroid hormone is effective in some patients. One of the caveats in this as well, is that many people who are depressed and receive treatment don’t really receive adequate treatment. A number of years ago, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) did a survey in both primary care and psychiatric offices looking at dose and duration of treatment for major depression. They found that depressed people in primary care offices got what they judged to be adequate treatment about 41% of the time, and in psychiatric offices about 61% of the time. As psychiatrists, one of the things we can do is to be sure that our patients receive an adequate dose of antidepressants for an adequate duration. Duration in this case means at least six to eight weeks to see if the person will respond, while pushing the dose to the upper therapeutic range.The black box warning of SSRIs in increasing suicidality for younger patients.When you start treating somebody with an antidepressant, their energy level and their neurovegetative signs often respond before their mood does. This means that you have a more energetic depressed person. Studies going back decades suggests that that exposes the person to a period of vulnerability to suicidal ideation and impulse. The warning that the FDA issued was correct, that in giving somebody an SSRI will increase their risk of suicidal ideation early in the course of treatment. Their intent in issuing the warning was to try to clinicians to follow the patients closely during the first few weeks of starting the SSRI. Unfortunately, what happened because of the warning was that many prescribers stopped prescribing SSRIs for children, adolescents, and young adults. As a result, the actual rates of suicide went up, because young people were suffering from depression and were not receiving appropriate treatment. It was a great example of unintended consequences.Studies that looked at this concluded that the group receiving SSRIs had more suicidal thoughts, but their rate of completed suicide did not differ from the placebo group. And overtime, as their depression improved, their risk of suicide declined.Increased anxiety in the early stages of SSRI usage.Serotonin decreases dopamine release and that may cause akathisia in some patients, particularly elderly patients who may not have a lot of dopamine reserve to begin with. Increased anxiety initially is possible. When these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, it’s very important to educate the patient that initially their intensity of anxiety is likely to increase before it decreases because these drugs increase the amount of serotonin available within a few hours. In contrast, the improvement of symptoms is dependent on more downstream processes, such as downregulation of postsynaptic receptors and changes in second messenger populations inside the neurons, those processes take weeks. In many cases, you may need to use an anxiolytic to transiently dampen the effect of the antidepressant.Panic DisordersInitial panic attacks can be severe. Individuals with these conditions literally feel as if they are dying. This is a result of a false triggering of our fight or flight response. Essentially, having a panic attack would be a normal response to a life-threatening event of some kind. That system is largely located in the non-dominant temporal lobe, and involves the amygdala, the anterior temporal lobe, and the parahippocampal complex. That part of the brain is there to chronically monitor the environment for threats and allow you to either fight or run away before something bad happens to you. In some people, though, it appears that that system is triggered way too easily, it goes off when there is no threat. This becomes a horrible experience. People develop all sorts of anticipatory anxieties depending on what their environment is at the time the panic happens.These people often need help with behavioral exposure therapies to make them less sensitive to those environments. In fact, that’s thought to be how people with panic disorder, if it goes untreated, eventually become agoraphobic. They can’t go out of their own house, or in some cases their own room, because they’ve become phobic to the entire world.Use of Chlomipramine in OCDA number of studies have demonstrated that Chlomipramine are more effective for OCD than SSRI. SSRI can be highly effective for OCD if dosing is increased beyond what is required for depression, in the range of 300 mg a day or more. And instead of taking four to six weeks to get a response, it may take eight to twelve weeks. Chlomipramine, on the other hand is more effective because the effect is felt sooner. It is a very robust increaser of serotonin and may have some affinity for norepinephrine as well. It’s antihistaminic, tends to be anxiolytic. The combination of these effects may be why it is overall more effective. It’s a somewhat difficult drug to tolerate because it’s also a good alpha-adrenergic blocker, so it lowers blood pressure. People can get dizzy or can faint if they are taking too much. It’s very anticholinergic, which gives people blurry vision, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary retention.Decreased libido and difficulty of ejaculation as a side effect of SSRI use.Increasing serotonin tends to dramatically impair sexual function. In males it can result in erectile dysfunction, delayed orgasm, or anorgasmia. In females, it can result in vaginal dryness or anorgasmia as well.Arousal is based on activity by the parasympathetic nervous system using acetylcholine. Orgasm is based on the triggering by the sympathetic system using norepinephrine, increasing serotonin. The spinal cord can interfere with both of those processes.In most of the original package inserts for SSRI, they quoted dysfunction figures of 5-7%. Those were falsely low because they only reported those cases where people stated this spontaneously. When you actually ask people, how many were having difficulties, it’s more like 50-70% have some degree of sexual dysfunction. The dysfunction can be mild or it can be severe, with loss of functioning all together.Moving to a mixed mechanism agent will help fix that. Use of Buproprion, which is mostly noradrenergic, can sometimes reverse that effect of the SSRI. More recently, there is now a SSRI (vilazodone) that also is a partial agonists for the 5HT-1a receptors. Their rate of sexual side effects is much lower. But because they are proprietary drugs, they are much more expensive than generic SSRI antidepressants.Buproprion and Mirtazapine use for males with previous sexual dysfunction due to SSRIBuproprion is almost purely noradrenergic, consequently does not interfere with sexual functioning. In fact, it may actually improve the libido much more than the SSRIs.Mirtazapine is a unique drug that in that at higher doses it increases norepinephrine release by inhibiting auto-receptors for norepinephrine, alpha-2 receptors in the locus ceruleus. So you get more norepinephrine output. It also blocks 5-HT2a receptors, so it acts as a serotonin antagonist which may also provide some benefit with respect to sexual functioning.Benefits of optimizing testosterone levels in relation to depression.Unlike women, men don’t go through a tightly defined menopause with a sharp drop off in testosterone production. The peak of testosterone production in most men, however, is around 18 or 19 years of age. And then there’s a gradual steady decline thereafter. So that by the time somebody is in their fifth or sixth decade, erectile dysfunction becomes fairly common. It’s estimated that about 40% of males over 50 have some degree of erectile dysfunction. Checking their testosterone is worthwhile, because you may find out that they’re in a subpopulation that have had a more rapid decline than other people.Sildenafil, the PDE5 inhibitor can be highly effective in treating erectile dysfunction as a side effect of antidepressants. Cialis daily can be more effective if taken daily due to the long half life and build up. Trazodone is less often effective than the PDE5 inhibitors. Because it’s an alpha antagonist it can work. The adverse effect, commonly known, is to cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. The other caveat is that it is a very potent antihistaminic drug. So you can wind up with the unfortunate situation of somebody who now is sexually functional but is too sleepy to be interested.We further talked about psychosocial details in the podcast.Concluding thoughtsIf we learn how to better modulate cortisol, that may help us a lot with treating refractory depression. There also are continuing developments going on in terms of learning more about direct electrical stimulation of the brain, which may be helpful in treating depressive and anxiety disorders. Once we evolve to the point where we have medications that can directly help increase some of the neurotrophic factors in the brain, that also may go a long way toward altering the long term course of depressive illness. With the medications we have now, we currently have to work with ⅔ response rate and ⅓ remission rate, which is just not adequate by anyone’s standards.
Have you ever felt like you wavered between anxiety and panic, or feeling totally emotionally numb?
Did you know that’s one of the ways your body is wired to protect you? There are ways to feel healthy, normal, and deal with the reason you feel that way.
This week on the podcast I talk to Dr. Kevin Ing and Adam Borecky about the body’s fight or flight response, and then the deepest response to trauma—emotional shutdown.
This week’s podcast guest, Dr. Jackson Brammer used to be an expert procrastinator. He used a few simple tricks to overcome his procrastination habit, and he’s sharing how he transformed his life on this week’s episode of the Psychiatry and Psychotherapy podcast.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticThis week on the podcast, Ginger Simonton, PhD candidate, and I (Dr. David Puder) talk about about how to deal with emotional detachment. In the psychiatry world, we call the state of emotional detachment, congruence. What is congruence?Psychological congruence is someone’s ability to feel and express their inner emotions in a consistent manner with their outer world—their speech and body language.As an example, have you ever smiled when you’re talking about something sad? Or felt very emotional, yet had a flat face and still posture? Have you ever felt angry, but pushed it down and developed a headache? These are incongruent speech and behavior patterns. Incongruence happens when we’ve lost touch with our inner world, our emotions that are represented with bodily sensations. Many of my patients experience emotions, but have a hard time expressing them with words, so they shove them out of their experience.Emotions are unavoidable.We experience them all the time, whether we know it or not. Common terms for pushing them out of our awareness are suppression, denial, repression, and other defense mechanisms. We may think we can suppress our emotions, but they will come out in one way or another—sometimes through physical pain and illness.There is extensive research on how the body processes emotion, and how that affects us physically. One of my favorite books on this subject is The Body Keeps the Score, by Bessel van der Kolk and The Feeling of What Happens by Antonio Damasio. I have spoken about the science of emotion in part 1, part 2, part 3 on microexpression and a popular episode on the polyvagal theory which give the science and application of understanding emotion. As psychotherapists, our job is to help people reconnect to those emotions, and be able to experience them in healthy ways. People bury so many of our psychological problems in our bodies that we don’t even feel comfortable in our bodies anymore, and we prefer to be numb.People further push unwanted emotions out of their experience through use of drugs, alcohol, and other addictions like porn, gambling, movie binging, or mindlessly scrolling forever on social media. How do we develop incongruence?But we don’t start out as emotionally disconnected, or incongruent. As children, we express our emotions as we feel them. If we are happy, we giggle, smile, or stick out our tongue as we work on a project. If we are sad, we cry. If we are angry, we bite, yell, spit or claw. If we have disgust we spit things out, push things away and protest against putting things in our mouth! If our emotions are mirrored back, and our caretaker acknowledges them verbally, them we optimally will be connected to our bodily responses from a young age. This is why I always recommend starting any discipline or high emotional moment with kids by empathically mirroring their emotions in words, and adding meaning to why they might feel such a way.To get along with others, most kids, over time, develop a normal adaptive way to conceal emotions, which helps function in family and friendships. We learn that there is a context for truly sharing what is going on, and this is a good thing. Sometimes suppressing strong emotion until later is helpful!Stronger issues develop when repeated messages invalidate or shame our experience, or trauma moves us away from being congruent with our inner experience. It is also possible that there is no one who an individual connects with enough to be congruent around.For example, if everyone you know would shame or attack you, it might not be a good idea to bring out your deepest thoughts and emotions. These kinds of households often have heavy drugs or alcohol, severe mental illness, or predators.We are meaning-making creatures. We assign meaning to events in our lives, and that meaning becomes our guiding belief and principle, especially in key developmental periods in childhood.These meanings shape how we are going to interact with the world. Although unconscious and out of our awareness most of the time, when we live out of congruence without ourselves, it leads us to form these earlier, shaping meanings. (click here for more on the science of meaning)How incongruence develops:A trauma occurs. A child hears his parents fighting. The child, when in the midst of it, seems to be physically sick, and this distracts the parents from their fighting and thus decreases the fighting. We assign meaning to it. The child, as always, relates everything back to him or herself. They think, “If there is yelling, if I become ill, the yelling will stop.”We structure habits and actions around that belief. The person continues to use being ill as an adaptive response to calm the parent’s hostility. Any emotional pain and discomfort is thus learned to be responded to when in the midst of only physical pain.We see patterns in our lives that reflect that belief. We react repeatedly in a way that demonstrates our belief. We notice it affects our relationships, and that further cements the belief in our lives. New connections are found with caring physicians, maybe specialists who have concern for the medical issues, which further reinforces illness being a way to both calm disagreements and get connection needs met.We have to either live with it, or deal with it. Until we revisit that moment and that decision, we cannot sift through that core belief. There is incredible hope for people with incongruence.The response to a healthy therapeutic relationship and subsequent changes in behavior can be astounding. To deal with it, it is necessary to both find new ways of connecting with others but also not be able to use the incongruent way of being for an adaptive means. How do we fix incongruence?Our goal as we progress in life is to connect our physical body, emotional experience and verbal communication. The best public speakers seem to speak from the core of their being. The most powerful messages come from getting in touch with ourselves and integrating it. We can introduce the concept of reconnecting with the self in several ways:ArtArt helps people bypass the logical areas of the brain and produce something raw and congruent to their inner experience. Painting, drawing, working with clay, or other forms of art help us connect with things deep down in our inner experience. Sometimes we ask people to make a self portrait or a picture of their home to discover new things and access something true.Then we ask for people to describe their pictures and link the congruent space of the art with what they share. True Self Ginger often uses the phrase “inner child” but I like to describe it as the “true self,” or the core of our being. Living congruently out of the “true self” is when how you imagine yourself lines up with what you do and how you articulate yourself. This is not a new idea, Karen Horney’s Neurosis and Human Growth is my favorite author on this topic.Learning that we sometimes have hidden this part of ourselves, and then gaining access to it and learning to live by it can be powerful. When we are around people who can give us grace and truth as we progress, we can find this more and more. Bodyscan (or interception)Patients who have dealt with trauma often dissociate from their bodies. Even in this era of technology, it’s easy to forget we have bodies. People spend most of their time disconnected, scrolling the internet.When we experience our body and work through emotions at the same time, it brings us into ourselves and develops congruence.Ginger likes to ask the following questions when her patient is experiencing a triggering event, to be able to dig down to the root cause of incongruence:What is your body feeling as you talk about that?What emotion would you name that feeling you’re having?When is the last time that you remember your body feeling that way? The patient’s answer to this must be close to the original time of trauma, something usually in their childhood. I like to ask as well:As you say that what are you feeling in your body?If your body could say something what would it say?I want to access their bodily memories and the source of their pain. Taper off of harmful and unhelpful drugs.It’s easier to medicate incongruence, rather than actually deal with the root of it. It’s quicker. Substances like alcohol and drugs deeply affect people’s emotions. When patients are self medicating, they are usually trying to rid themselves of a symptom of emotional pain.I like to ask them, “What are you getting out of the substances? Sleep? Peace?” Once we can answer that question, we can get to the bottom of where the anxiety and fear or anger comes from. We can begin to develop congruence, which will in turn, bring peace.People medicate with illegal, and prescribed, legal drugs, as a way of dealing with emotional pain.Some doctors and therapists can be symptom based, rather than focused on what is underneath the symptoms. When they see a patient, they can be on a hunt, trying to identify what’s wrong, the bottom line, and then find a medication that will relieve symptoms.When we do that as therapists, we connect with the patient’s illness narrative, rather than who their core is, before they developed these problems.Some patients who come to see us are taking 20-33 pills a day for all their different illnesses. If there is so much medication involved, it can become difficult to do psychotherapy as likely the sensorium or total brain function is impaired.We have found when we establish a secure emotional connection with them, we can get some of these medications off the table, and then our patients can start to develop a range of emotions.Through an attachment with a a therapist, that is trusting and meaningful, people can start to feel what before they either consciously or unconsciously suppressed. I have spoken about the worst medications here. How to stay congruent during tough circumstances.It is tough to apply all that patients have learned through therapy in their everyday lives. Our families and friends love homeostasis—usually, the people around us want us to stay the same. They say, “you’ve changed,” as if that’s a bad thing.When we’ve been healed, when we are congruent with ourselves, it can be difficult for our friends and family to accept the “new us.” They connect more easily with the old us.We have noticed that if the patient begins to grow, the whole family system needs to change as well.To maintain newfound congruence and healthy mental states, patients work to find healthy relationships they can be congruent within. In the future I will talk about how to identify safe people and how to have healthy boundaries that keep us in relationships.Questions, comments, thoughts? Please comment on the picture that corresponds to this post on my instagram: @Dr.DavidPudersign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.Special thanks to the MEND team for allowing me to collaborate with them! Here is a link to the long version of how the MEND program works. Here is a link to the program.
In the latest podcast, Dr. Cummings and I talked about antipsychotics, the particular branch of psychopharmacology that deals with medicines that treat psychotic experiences and other mental disorders.
How Psychiatric Medications Work with Dr. Cummings
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.This week I interviewed Dr. Cummings, a psychopharmacologist, on the Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Podcast. Below is a brief introduction to the episode. For more detailed notes by Dr. Cummings, go to my resource page.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticWhat is psychopharmacology?Psychopharmacology is a branch of psychiatry that deals with medications that affect the way the brain works. The medicines used in psychopharmacology treat illnesses whose primary concerns and issues are mood, cognitive processes, behavioral control, and major mental disorders.It is a unique branch of pharmacology because the illnesses are usually addressed by both medication and psychotherapy.What makes a drug psychiatric in nature?What makes a drug labeled as psychotherapeutic, is the intent behind the prescription. Some drugs will serve more than one purpose, so understanding why it was prescribed is important. For example, valproic acid is helpful in treating seizure disorders, and also bipolar disorder. For the seizure disorder, it would not be considered a psychotherapeutic drug. For the bipolar disorder, it would be considered a psychotherapeutic drug.How do medications work?All medicines go through the same steps of digestion in our bodies. They are liquified in the stomach, and then absorbed. The drug travels through the liver, and then into the blood supply, which brings it to the organ it was designed to target.Our bodies have receptor sites, made of protein, that sit on the surface of a neuron, or a nerve cell in the brain. The drug, when it reaches that receptor, either binds to it and blocks it, or it can help the neurotransmitter work to further what it does naturally.For example, caffeine is an adenosine blocker. Adenosine is a naturally occurring molecule in our bodies that calms us down as the day wears on, preparing us for sleep. Caffeine, as a drug, blocks our natural adenosine from reaching its receptor; it keeps us awake.Medicines work in the same way—inhibiting or helping certain molecules reach their targeted organs.How absorption and dosage rates affect medicineMany things can affect absorption rate, and medications absorb at different rates, and at different potencies.Things like gastric bypass, (when they take out a part of the stomach and intestines) can affect absorption rate of drugs. One of my patients had a stomach surgery, and afterwards, their depression came back. I told them to start grinding their pills to help with absorption rate of their antidepressant, and their medication started working again.Our livers play the main part in absorption. Sometimes they are gatekeepers, and they can hinder absorption rates dramatically. Animals and plants have been at war for thousands of years. Plants create toxins to try to discourage animals from eating them. Our livers develop different enzymes to break down those toxins in order to make the plants safe for our bodies. Those same enzymes break down medications. Our bodies are constantly adapting and changing, adjusting to what we consume.As a psychiatrist, it’s important to pay attention to absorption rates to make sure our patients are getting maximum benefit. Maybe a patient has defected genes that limit absorption rate, or deficient enzymes to break down the medication. Or maybe other medications are interacting and changing absorption rates.A few times in my practice I have seen patients come in on multiple medications which are interacting poorly. For example, they are on a medication called amitriptyline and also on something that blocks its breakdown like fluoxetine. In our session they complain that they are confused and disoriented. I figure out that the drugs they’ve been prescribed is either inhibiting, interacting with, or increasing the effect of another medication. Once we learn that, we can make changes to their prescriptions, and they return to feeling normal.When you change the concentration of a medication, you can destroy the entire point of the prescription in the first place. There are numerous computer programs that can help us determine problems with drug interactions. Those programs can sometimes point out what could become a clinical problem, but often point out minor, irrelevant interactions.Just prescribing medicines, without taking into account the individual ecosystems we each have, is often a practice of trial and error. With properly administered tests and observation, we can move towards an effective dose and effective treatment plan.Because there are so many things that can change a drug level in the body, taking a plasma concentration may be the best way to assess if the dose is appropriate (check out my resource page for a list of appropriate levels). A high or low blood level might hint that the person is a rapid metabolizer, poor metabolizer, has GI issues with absorption, or has other medications or supplements that are increasing or decreasing the dose. How to reduce negative side effectsOne of the reasons that people develop problems with psychiatric side effects to medications is because they are increased too fast. There is a balance between wanting to get someone to an appropriate dose, and minimizing side effects. Too often, patients are prescribed a medication at full force and, due to sudden side effects patients will quit taking the medication.If the medicines were administered in a slower onramp, giving time and attention to their perceived absorption rates and side effects, many problems with those medications would stop.Is therapy or medication more helpful?There are many trains of thought on psychotherapy and medication. Some people want a pill to fix everything. However, not everything is a chemical imbalance in the body and can be fixed with a pill.If someone comes to me with a psychiatric problem, I almost always recommend psychotherapy, and often prescribe medication. Medications help, especially if someone has severe mental illness. If levels are mild to moderate, I find psychotherapy and lifestyle changes (like strength training and diet) are more effective for long term success.Rates of prescribing medication has increased and use of psychotherapy has decreased. Too many patients are taking medication without psychotherapy or lifestyle changes. One study shows that 73% of antidepressants are prescribed by primary care physicians (Mojtabai, 2008). Antidepressant use has increased from 1996 to 2005 from 6% to 10% while rates of therapy have gone down from 31% to 20% for those on antidepressants (Olfson, 2009).Because of that, people are not being treated in the most effective way possible. This is especially the case when considering the treatment of psychological trauma, for which talk therapy can cure in ways medications can not.Through both medications and psychotherapy, we can rewire the brain. In one study on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), two groups of people were studied—those who underwent cognitive behavioral therapy, and those that took medication. The therapy was found to be as helpful in eliminating OCD symptoms. However, the OCD symptoms returned when the medication was stopped. The symptoms did not return when the person had received cognitive behavioral therapy.Dr. Cummings uses a simple guideline to see if someone would benefit from medicine or talk therapy. If what the person is depressed about is something in their lifestyle—their weight, their job, their relationship, lifestyle changes and talk therapy will probably be most effective.If someone is experiencing neurovegetative symptoms of depression, such as: loss of appetite or increased appetite, severe energy loss, severe sleep disturbance with early morning awakening, physically slowed down, they are suffering from brain disturbances that are helped by medication.For more notes by Dr. Cummings, go to my resource page. Mojtabai, R., & Olfson, M. (2008). National patterns in antidepressant treatment by psychiatrists and general medical providers: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. The Journal of clinical psychiatry.Olfson, M., & Marcus, S. C. (2009). National patterns in antidepressant medication treatment. Archives of general psychiatry, 66(8), 848-856.See below for notes on the episode writen by Arvy Tj Wuysang. Defining Psychopharmacology and Psychopharmacologic AgentsPsychopharmacology: Study of medications and substances that affect how the brain works, both positively and negatively“Intent” in using versatile drug classes as psychotherapeutic agentsValproic Acid usage as an anti-epileptic drug vs mood disorder drugCaffeine usage as stimulantMetabolism and Physiologic Distribution of Psychopharmacologic AgentsGastrointestinal surgeries and their effect on psychiatric drugs’ absorptionOlanzapine will not be absorbed as effectively in individuals who had Gastric Bypass Surgery because of its slow absorption. Lorazepam, on the other hand, has a characteristically rapid absorption and will not have much disturbance in its absorption even in the context of post Gastric Bypass Surgery.Properties of drug absorption within the liverCytochrome P450 enzymesEvolutionary developed to metabolize plant toxinsCommon classes that plays significant role in psychiatric drug metabolism2D6, 2A4, 1A2Interaction with other drugs2D6 blockers (Fluoxetine, Paroxetine, Bupropion) will elevate plasma Amitriptyline levels. Inducers will decrease plasma levelsBenefits of using drug-drug interaction applications/softwaresImportance of monitoring plasma levels versus genetic testing in determining effective/safe dosageUCLA Imipramine Titration Study If receptors are given time to adapt to the medications, oftentimes side effects may be minimalImipramine titration goal of 150 mg1st group: increase of 25 mg increments per weekexperienced significant side effects (sleepy, dry mouth, low BP)2nd group: increase of 10 mg increments per week achieved the same blood levels as the first group but experienced minimal side effectsHow do psychiatric drugs work?Most bind to receptor sites that typically sit on the surface of a neuron and initiate a variety of action related to a particular neurotransmitterAgonistsAntagonists Partial agonistsReuptake inhibitorsImmediate vs Delayed Effect of different classes of psychiatric drugs are determined to their specific kinetic mechanismsBenzodiazepine, ETOH has immediate effectSSRI works through initiation and adaptation, produce downstream 2nd messenger effects, needs time and repetition to take effect, analogous to how psychotherapy works. Baxter, L. R., Schwartz, J. M., Bergman, K. S., Szuba, M. P., Guze, B. H., Mazziotta, J. C., ... & Phelps, M. E. (1992). Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of general psychiatry, 49(9), 681-689.Studied people with OCD, especially contamination obsession, for 6 weeks. 1st group: behavior response prevention2nd group: fluoxetineBoth have similar biological effect in terms of their neurologic circuits as portrayed on PET scan imagingAt 6 months follow up, group with behavior response prevention has more permanent behavior change.Follow up study of using combination of SSRI and behavior response prevention showed greater benefit than either treatment alone. How long should one stay on antidepressants?Dependent on frequency and severity of depressive episodesSingle depressive episodeTreat to remission, keep in remission for 1 year, gradually taper the antidepressant2-3 episodes of depressionEssentially, needs to stay on antidepressants permanently Remains vulnerable to depressionAntidepressants ameliorates symptoms, but does not cure underlying pathophysiologyEach episode makes the next episode more likely!Analogous to Diabetes Mellitus treatmentI.e., Blood sugar needs to be controlled for the rest of the patient’s lifeHow do we determine between using medications versus lifestyle therapy in treating psychiatric conditions?Depends on presentationIf merely dysphoric, can start by introducing lifestyle changes If greater severity, showing neurovegetative signs, may start with medications right awayNeurovegetative signs: Loss/increase of appetite, significant weight changes, severe loss of energy, severe sleep disturbance, psychomotor agitation/reductionPathophysiology of DepressionMultifactorial, not merely a single neurotransmitter deficiency Core dysfunction of limbic system, influenced by disruption of multiple neurotransmittersInflammation may play a role through cytokine dysregulationKirsch, I., & Sapirstein, G. (1998). Listening to Prozac but hearing placebo: A meta-analysis of antidepressant medication. Prevention & Treatment, 1(2), 2a.Only ⅓ of patients studied had full remission of depression symptoms with antidepressants.Variety of placebo effects in depression studiesDr. Cummings has recommended these articles to read along with this session (thank you Mona Mojtahedzadeh M.D. for organizing them and adding some notes): 1. Duman, R. S., & Aghajanian, G. K. (2012). Synaptic dysfunction in depression: potential therapeutic targets. science, 338(6103), 68-72.Depression is associated with reduced brain size and decreased neuronal synapses in regions that regulate mood and cognition (the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus).Antidepressants can block or reverse these deficits.Typical antidepressants have limited efficacy and delayed response times (weeks to months).Ketamine is a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that has been proven to produces antidepressant responses in patients who are resistant to typical antidepressants within hours.Ketamine has been shown to rapidly induce synaptogenesis.Ketamine can also reverse the synaptic deficits caused by chronic stress.Findings highlight the importance of a synaptogenic hypothesis of depression and treatment response.2. Thompson, J., Thomas, N., Singleton, A., Piggott, M., Lloyd, S., Perry, E. K., ... & Ferrier, I. N. (1997). D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) Taq1 A polymorphism: reduced dopamine D2 receptor binding in the human striatum associated with the A1 allele. Pharmacogenetics, 7(6), 479-484.3. Hyman, S. E., & Nestler, E. J. (1996). Initiation and adaptation: a paradigm for understanding psychotropic drug action. The American journal of psychiatry, 153(2), 151.4. Tracy, T. S., Chaudhry, A. S., Prasad, B., Thummel, K. E., Schuetz, E. G., Zhong, X. B., ... & Tay-Sontheimer, J. (2016). Interindividual Variability in Cytochrome P450–Mediated Drug Metabolism. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 44(3), 343-351.5. Hunsberger, J., Austin, D. R., Henter, I. D., & Chen, G. (2009). The neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of psychotropic agents. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 11(3), 333.6. psychotropic medications: overview seminar core handout7. McCutcheon, R., Beck, K., Bloomfield, M. A., Marques, T. R., Rogdaki, M., & Howes, O. D. (2015). Treatment resistant or resistant to treatment? Antipsychotic plasma levels in patients with poorly controlled psychotic symptoms. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(8), 892-897.Big number of patients with schizophrenia have poor response to antipsychotics medications.Possible causes are subtherapeutic plasma levels of the medication or medication ineffectiveness.This study examines 36 patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia and assesses the extent of subtherapeutic antipsychotic plasma levels and the frequency of antipsychotic plasma level monitoring in standard clinical practice.Antipsychotic plasma levels were found to have been measured in only one patient in the year prior to our study.Over one-third of patients had subtherapeutic antipsychotic levels.In detail: sixteen (44%) patients showed either undetectable (19%) or subtherapeutic levels (25%), and 20 (56%) patients had levels in the therapeutic range.Black ethnicity, shorter duration of current treatment, and antipsychotics other than olanzapine and amisulpride were factors significantly associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels.This study indicates higher chances for under-treatment rather than treatment-resistance for those patients with poor response to antipsychotic medications.On another note, the measurement of antipsychotic levels may be under-utilised.
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticThe last two weeks, we’ve covered using Microexpressions to Make Microconnections and the Microexpressions of Fear, Surprise, Disgust and Creating Connection. We discussed what microexpressions are, what each of the different emotions are, and how they look on the face.Learning about microexpressions develops a deeper connection with others—whether in therapy, or just in everyday relationships.Microexpressions are tiny facial movements that give us cues to what someone is feeling. Their eyebrows might twitch down for a moment to display anger. Or the sides of their mouth might stretch horizontally to show they are afraid.Our goal as therapists is to understand what emotion our patients are feeling, and to develop our empathy towards them through understanding the reason behind that emotion. Understanding microexpressions can lead to micromoments of connection by developing a greater closeness between you and your patient.Microexpressions happen out of our awareness, and can be great cues to what someone is unconsciously feeling.Using microexpressions to understand the unconsciousMicroexpressions develop our identityWe are always picking up on some level of people’s microexpressions, whether we are trained in it or not. Many people intrinsically understand what others feel. This understanding can become our social mirror as we are growing up.If we have an ability to make people smile when we are children, we may try to reinforce that reaction from others by building our interactions around humor. Then we are known as the “funny” one. These cues people give us can become a part of our identity.One of my patients had a facial deformity. She noticed, and internalized, the messaging that she was “disgusting” to look at, based on other people’s facial expressions when they saw her. That led to deep feelings of disgust about herself. She often showed a microexpression of disgust on her face when she was talking about herself. Over time spent in therapy, she was able to create her values, her beliefs, and determine that as a human, she was more than her deformity.Internalizing people’s microexpressions as feedback about ourselves can be helpful or harmful. When we learn more about microexpressions, we are able to develop techniques to delve deeper into people’s reactions and understand that those reactions are often not about us, but about the other person’s experience.Through understanding microexpressions, we learn that we do not need to take every reaction and internalize it as part of our identity, either positive or negative. With our patients, seeing microexpressions as they talk about themselves can help us uncover deep seated beliefs—whether it’s disgust, arrogance, or any number of other emotions.Microexpressions reveal object relationsObject relations is a theory about how we internalize early attachment figures and then subsequently understand future in relationships. For example, if we have a tense relationship with our father, and then we might expect or recreate tense relationships with our male teachers, male boss, and male therapist, as a way to make sense of the world and hope to have a different outcome.We most often create these emotions towards early developmental relationships, then paint our beliefs about them on others throughout our lives, unless we deal with our feelings towards those people, and begin to be able to distinguish and differentiate, i.e., “not all authority figures are evil.”In therapy, microexpressions can be helpful to unearth some of these emotions. The relationship between a therapist and a patient can represent, to the patient, many different relationships. Being a safe person for them to discuss their feelings with is the most important part of therapy.Reading microexpressions can help us understand the emotions still present that the patient feels towards early attachment figures. These may come out as they discuss a current issue, and then express a strong emotion. If you focus in on the part of the story where the emotion was present, then they might start eventually talking about early attachment figures like their emotionally distant dad or angry mother. The microexpression allows us to know where to focus in, and listen closely in their story. They are not only important to pay attention to when it comes to how a patient feels about others, but also how they feel about us. Knowing how they feel about us, as their doctors, helps to be able to identify what are overarching, negative early life experiences and how we can help them work through those feelings so that they can live more present and thriving in the present. Talking about Dreams reveals microexpressionsAs therapists, listening to dreams can give you a great glimpse into your patient’s inner emotional life. Studies show that memories more easily develop around negative emotions, and those negative moments can form points of organization for our memory. They found that PET scans showed that the parts of the brain that store our memories are also the ones activated during REM sleep.Dreams usually demonstrate what’s most emotionally relevant to work on during psychotherapy. As patients are telling me their dreams, they will show microexpressions while reporting the narrative of the dream. Through discussing the dream, they can talk about emotions and desires they might not have consciously allowed themselves to have.For example, if a patient is feeling trapped in a job or relationship, she may have a dream she is trapped in a box, or stuck underwater. She will be able to express her emotions during the description of the dream—her fear, anger, surprise, disgust. She may not be ready to talk about her relationship or job, but she can unearth the unconscious emotions of the dream and feel comfortable talking about that. In the end, her thoughts will go to areas of her life where she feels stuck, and then suddenly realize what the dream might mean.As psychotherapy progresses and the person unpacks their emotions, the dreams change to be more positive. When a patient feels supported, heard and psychologically safe, they begin to unpack deeper, unconscious emotions they once only felt in dreams. Psychological Defense and microexpressionsPeople experience psychological defense as a way of creating an alternative, safe reality for themselves. It’s an adaptive way to defend against their feelings, their reality, and the state of their mental health. Psychological defense is largely an unconscious, adaptive process.Sometimes a patient will have a thought that is too distressing to pay attention to. Their brain will then send what we call “signal anxiety,” or a message that this thought, emotion, or desire must be suppressed from consciousness. As a result, they might have a psychological defense act as a way to adaptively defend against these thoughts. For example, they might suppress a thought to later deal with, deny that it happened, or go wash the car to get their aggression .Another example where microexpressions will help is if a patient says they aren’t angry at a person. They may believe that, or may try to believe that. Maybe that person harmed them in a huge way. Prior to saying, “I’m not angry,” their face may have flashed a microexpression of anger, letting you know that perhaps they are denying what is truly going on.The best thing to know here, is that psychological defenses are there for adaptive reasons, and the patient needs to feel safe enough to have them soften. If you empathize with the distress that comes with the defense you will be helping them get to what is under it. Warnings about using microexpressions in therapyMiscategorizationWhen I first started learning about microexpressions, I would tell people, “When you told that story, you flashed an expression of anger.” Then the patient would be angry at me for assuming they were angry. Maybe the patient hadn’t even had the chance to process on their own that they were, in fact, angry. Or maybe I was just wrong about what I was assuming! Either way, I didn’t give them the space to find their own emotions.It’s important to allow people to mine their own feelings, and even discover the meaning behind the feeling. If they are telling a story and show a microexpression of anger, be curious about their feelings in that moment. Ask them to draw out the emotion and describe it. Be gentle with your word choices.The danger is when we are wrong about what we think someone is feeling, but we aren’t accurate, and we assume we are still correct. Emotional contagionAs we learn about microexpressions, we see that there are hundreds of them being expressed in any one-hour therapy session. It can be overwhelming if we take responsibility for another person’s emotional life. It’s important to know the difference between their feelings and our own feelings, so we don’t own their emotions.When I first started in my psychiatry rounds in medical school, I didn’t understand emotional contagion. I began to feel depressed after different conversations with suicidal patients. After talking to several mentors about it, I realized I was internalizing my patients’ emotions, and having issues with self/other distinction. Their emotions were contagiously experienced in my head, and I had little defenses against feeling overwhelmed. Now, before I go into any therapy session with a patient, I take an emotional gauge of myself. I see how I’m feeling, what my natural, resting emotional state is. When I enter the therapy session, I am able to categorize what is additional to my experience—sadness, anxiety, joy, fear, as the other person's, not mine. I am also able to deeper empathize with their feelings because I am not in a confused emotional state.When we delve too deeply and become emotionally distressed with our patients, it inhibits our ability to offer insight, reflect, or therapeutically help the other person. Feeling deeply can be a tool in therapy for developing connection, but make sure you have healthy boundaries, too.Being able to understand the patient and their reality can also help us own our own reaction to them. Maybe the patient reminds us of someone we know, and we are putting negative feelings on them. Rushing the processMaybe you repeatedly notice anger on your patient’s face during conversations about their father. Here’s the catch—maybe they don’t know they are angry at their father yet. If you rush that revelation, you are taking away their emotional experience of uncovering their feelings.Letting someone use their words, and not forcing word choice, is important. If they say “frustration” and not anger, you should also say “frustration” and not the word anger. Allow them to have their own process. Allow feedbackPeople are the experts of their own inner world. Microexpressions, though incredibly helpful, only give us hints. They do not give us a perfect map of someone’s entire emotional experience.When you express curiosity about what someone is feeling, allow them to correct you if you offer specific word choices or suggestions. Ask them to clarify, and accept their explanations about what they were feeling. Learn about microexpressionsIt is helpful, when implemented correctly, to learn about microexpressions and use that knowledge to develop micromoments of connection.To learn more about microexpressions, download the Emotion Connection IOS app.For full PDF of the episode with citations and further notes go here.
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Microexpressions: Fear, Surprise, Disgust, Empathy, and Creating Connection Part 2
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticOn the last Psychiatry and Psychotherapy podcast and blog, we talked about how Microexpressions make Microconnections, their role in therapy and how learning about them can increase our emotional connection to others.This week, we will continue uncovering how different microexpressions look on the face and feel in our body, and their corresponding emotions.Fear
Fear is an adaptive emotion—its original goal is to keep us safe and alive. When someone pulls into our lane on the interstate, it’s fear and our ability to quickly jerk the steering wheel straight that saves our lives. When we encounter heights, snakes, or frightening people in a dark alley at night, fear is the emotion we feel. As children, we have fears of abandonment from our mothers, and at around two years old, we begin to experience stranger anxiety. As we grow, we read our parents and see what they are afraid of, so we can form protective fear patterns. Even different genders receive different messaging about fear. Parents teach male children to be more fearless, empowering and enabling, more courageous. They teach females to be more cautious, careful and more fearful. Fear, demonstrated on the face in a microexpression, looks like:Eyebrows drawing up and together with tension in the foreheadLower eyelids tensingMouth opening horizontally in an interactionFear can bond people together but also separate us from having an emotional connection. In any emotional interaction, we are experiencing a state of calmness, fight/flight, or disconnection.Fear and anger come into play in both fight and flight. When we notice someone exhibiting fear when we are interacting with them, it’s important to be curious as to why. Are they fearful because of the interaction with us? Or are they fearful because they are accounting a story about something that scared them?When someone experiences fear, it’s important to strive for a healthy connection again. That person may experience fear because of vulnerability or shame. Because fear’s goal is to stay safe, it can cause disconnection. Establish a psychologically safe place for them to feel connected, rather than fight or flight.Dealing with fearListen to your voice of courage that’s inside of you. Anytime there is fear, there is also a courageous part of us that is sending different messages too, we just need to focus on it and therefore turn up the volume of the courage signals. When we get stuck, frozen, in a state of fight or flight, we can choose to engage the object of fear anyway. We can choose courage.Experiencing fear during sporting events or performances is a great way to think about this. Fear can be decreased over time. When we train often enough, or compete often enough, that fear response slowly decreases. After plenty of performances, after plenty of sport competition events, we start to normalize that fear and courage takes over—training gives us confidence in the face of fear.We can learn how to handle fear without being totally overwhelmed by facing the cause of our fear in slow, small increments. It can create an adaptation, rather than stress. Even cardiovascular health is tied to your emotional ability to handle fight or flight. By training physically, you are actually training for interpersonal stressors as well by spiking your adrenaline, breathing and heart rate.Beyond behavioral therapy help, you can do mental exercises to regain control of your body during fear. Even simply saying out loud, “I am experiencing fear” can feel normalizing. Also, through meditation and breathing, you can reset your heart rate and breathing, and calm your body’s fear responses.Surprise
On the face, the microexpression of surprise looks similar to fear, but where fear affects the face on a more horizontal axis, surprise affects the face on a more vertical axis. Surprise looks like:Rising and rounding eyebrowsRising upper eyelidSometimes mouth falling open with lips relaxingNote: rising eyebrows can also be a conversational signal emphasizing something.Surprise can be awe, curiosity, a revelation. It can be a more transitory emotion—quickly moving on to fear, anger or joy. When someone is exhibiting surprise on their face, be curious about why, ask them if the answer isn’t obvious—such as them arriving at their own surprise party—and you may learn something new about them.Disgust
People rarely use the word “disgust.” They’ll talk about happiness, anger or fear or other emotions. But disgust is something that we don’t understand as easily without dipping back into the primal reasons for the emotion, and how it is helpful in modern day interactions.Originally, disgust was an important emotion for survival. It standardized hygiene and behavioral norms. If a caveman or woman ate something gross, or fell out of line with the accepted hygiene of the day, they were shunned from the group. If they slept with a relative or animal, ate another human, or did not clean food properly, they aroused disgust in their tribe, and were exiled or even killed.Without disgust, there would be less social norms, less “rules” for relating to each other and maintaining health codes. It’s a powerful emotion that drives behavior.Disgust as a microexpression looks like:Wrinkling around the noseUpper lip risingEyebrows move down without tension (contrast this with anger where the eyebrows are pulled together and the eyelids are raised and tense).I feel that people need to be more aware of disgust as a microexpression, and learn what it is trying to communicate to them. It’s not just about a survival mechanism, such as smelling rancid milk and being able to avoid getting sick. It’s also about how our spouse treats us, how we feel when we watch interactions between other people.The negative effects of disgust, when it is taken too far, can be damaging and horrific. Racism and sexism are examples of disgust gone wrong. It can be dehumanizing. Even listening to Hitler’s conversation at his dinners, experts have analyzed disgust-oriented language. Much of his propaganda was even disgust-provoking propaganda.People who are an object of someone’s disgust experience deep shame. Sometimes, that is warranted—such as when that person has broken a societal rule like pedophelia. But as a therapist, I have to have a lower threshold of disgust when it comes to hearing people’s secrets.After awhile, I think that disgust, like fear, can be adaptable. I have heard all manners of secrets, and I rarely feel disgust anymore. Instead, I feel I need to exhibit psychological safety, so the patient feels open to talking about the things they cannot tell anyone. Through talk therapy, hopefully I can help them feel less shame and understand their unique journey and struggles more fully.Using microexpressions in interactionsThe first key to using microexpressions is to pay attention. Look at the person’s face, be interested and curious about what emotional state they are in. Notice the facial movements, and listen to what they are saying. Is what they are expressing maybe outside of their awareness as they talk? Does the emotion they are showing match what they are talking about?As a therapeutic tool, understanding microexpressions is a way of gathering information about someone else. Use that information to respond in a way that shows the person you are desiring to connect.Paying attention to microexpressions actually creates empathy. We have mirror neurons—neurons in our brain that are devoted to telling us what someone else is feeling. Those neurons light up when we watch someone else doing something, or feeling something. When we see someone bite into hamburger on a commercial, it might make us hungry, even causing our stomach to rumble or our mouths to make extra saliva. When we see someone cry, it might make us cry. Your brain will light up, to some degree, as if you are experiencing someone else's emotions. We can train ourselves to pay attention to those neurons to better be able to connect with people.Some people experience either less or more empathy than what is considered normal. This can be because of a disorder, or because of emotional burnout. Even experiencing emotional overload causes a decrease in empathy.Being able to determine the difference between yourself and the other person is another important part of empathy. Learning about microexpressions can help you do that—you can see their emotions, and recognize they are the one experiencing it, and you can respond to the emotion, but you do not have to own it as your own.Tune in next week to hear part three of Microexpressions. If you'd like to try out the app that trains people how to read microexpression, go here: IOS Emotion Connection AppFor full PDF of the episode with citations and further notes go to: https://psychiatrypodcast.com/resource-page/
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticWhat are microexpressions?Microexpressions are brief, involuntary facial expressions that are cues to the true emotions that someone is feeling. We see microexpressions in tiny twitches of the brows, the lips and nose. They can last for as little as 1/15th of a second on the face.Microexpressions are helpful because they send messages, both to ourselves, and to those we are trying to communicate with. Some are naturally better at sensing what someone else is feeling, but if you want a deeper clue into emotions and emotional connection, start to study microexpressions. We can even begin to understand ourselves a little better when we pay attention to them.What are emotions?Emotions are adaptive brain networks, expressed rapidly on the face and in the body. They carry messages about our environment or thoughts, and they have a specific goal or intention.Although they appear ethereal in nature—fleeting feelings of happiness or sadness—emotions are actually grounded, measurable reactions. Each person, based on their experiences in life, will react differently to each stimuli. With each person, the reaction and meaning of the emotion lies within the lens we have. Emotions have a purpose.Emotions move us to action.Emotions themselves are not good or bad.We often do not decide to have emotions. Emotion is a survival mechanism that we all have. For example, the purpose of anger is to protect and reconnect. Anger surfaces when we feel threatened—when a lion tries to attack our family—it gives us the physical response we need to attack what is attacking us. Fear is helpful to trigger our body to be able to outrun that lion when we need to—our heart starts pumping, adrenaline rushes in, survival mode turns on. In modern society, we’ve tried to suppress or deny those emotions, but they’re still there, and they’re still helpful. We just have to know what they are, and what to do with them. What are the different emotions? Scientists have lumped all of our complex feelings into seven, basic categories.Happiness
Emotion: Happy, JoyBody Sensation: Positive warmth throughout the body, grounded feeling.Microexpression: Mouth going up symmetrically, cheeks pulling up and change in contour, and eyes contracting (especially on the outside with classic “crows feet”). Meaning and Goal of Emotion: Heartfully rejoicing, finding pleasure and wanting more of something, noting what brings you pleasure, feeling safe connection, having mutuality with someone, moving towards a goal.Sadness
Emotion: SadnessBody Sensation: Heavy feeling in chest, decreased limb activity.Microexpression: Inner eyebrows rising and outer eyelid dropping, pulling down of the lip corners, chin moving up, and lips showing a pout.Goal of Emotion: Express loss over connection, an object, or attachment, invite solace and concern.Fear
Emotion: FearBody Sensation: Weight on chest, constriction around neck, butterflies in the stomach.Microexpression: Upper eyelids rising high and longer than surprise, lower eyelids tensing, eyebrows drawing up and together with tension in the forehead, mouth opening horizontally.Goal of Emotion: Preserve and maintain life, freeze to analyze danger, prepare to run or attack, puff up (to look dangerous). Disgust
Emotion: DisgustBody Sensation: Queasy, feeling of wanting to vomit, gag feeling in the throat.Microexpression: Wrinkling around the nose, upper lip rising, and eyebrows move down without tension (contrast this with anger where the eyebrows are pulled together and the eyelids are raised and tense). Goal of Emotion: To move away from, avoid, reject, spit out, get away from.Pride/contempt
Emotion: Pride, Smug, ContemptBody Sensation: Increased sensation in the chest and head of euphoria, puffed up feeling in chestMicroexpression: One side of the lips rising faster than the other, or one side coming down slower than the other. Goal of Emotion: To take pride in another’s success, proud when I succeed, feel superior, or diminish inferiority.Surprise
Emotion: SurpriseBody Sensation: Startle and jolt to the bodyMicroexpression: Rising and rounding eyebrows, co-occurring with rising upper eyelid, and sometimes mouth falling open with lips relaxing. Note: rising eyebrows can also be a conversational signal emphasizing something.Goal of Emotion: Prepare for the next step, achieve familiarity with an object/situation so that you are better prepared when encountering a similar situation in the future.Anger
Emotion: Anger, FrustrationBody Sensation: Tight chest, tension in neck and back, knots or burning in stomach.Microexpression: A short tightening of the eyelids, eyebrows moving down and together, and sometimes lips pressing together. Rarely, showing of teeth. The tightening of eyelids and eyebrows for an extended period of time can also be seen when a person is concentrating or focusing, so context is important. Meaning and Goal of Emotion: Overcome obstacle to move towards a particular goal (desire to reconnect with a loved one). Protect self or significant others—set up boundaries, have a voice, or be assertive. Attack when you feel no escape is possible either physically or psychologically.Why should you learn about microexpressions?Learning about microexpressions is helpful for emotional connection. Connection is largely based on empathy, and when we know what someone else is feeling, studies show we experience more empathy.It can help raise the level of connection in personal life, in work, and even for people who have disorders that can cause emotional disconnection, such as schizophrenia.Therapists and mental health workers, when tested, demonstrated they were no better at reading microexpressions than the average person. Another study also showed that therapists and mental health professionals overestimate how good they are at reading micrexpressions. We believe microexpression training would benefit therapists, and help them build a therapeutic alliance with their patients.One study of 21,000 patients, showed that those who were under the care of doctors who demonstrated higher empathy, had 40% less life-threatening instances related with their diabetes. Higher empathy = better health outcomes. In another study about psychotherapists, the overall therapeutic connection impacted how well someone responded to both the placebo and the active medication.Learning about microexpressions will help therapists be able to diagnose or identify depression, anxiety, and find underlying emotional responses to a story a patient is telling.How do you learn about microexpressions?Anyone can learn how to read microexpressions, and studies show that it really does help us feel more connected to people, and it helps us develop empathy.Even when we lean in, and specifically pay attention to someone else’s emotions, we are better able to empathize with that person and connect. That’s a simple way to feel closer to someone, but to really go deeper into the science of emotional connection, you have to study microexpressions.The most effective way to learn microexpressions is through a training program. I built a training app that can help. The app has over a hundred recorded videos of real facial expression responses. After the video plays, it will prompt you to guess the emotion the person expressed. Once you respond, the app gives you immediate feedback of the correct answer, along with what facial movements are involved in each emotion. Repetition is key in learning microexpressions.The positive effects of microexpression trainingThere are incredible benefits to microexpression training, whether you are a healthcare professional or just someone who is interested in emotional connection.It develops psychological safety.When we read a microexpression, it shows we are demonstrating an appreciation for the person you are listening to. You are giving time and attention to their feelings. Often, when we recognize a microexpression, we tend to mimic it on our own faces. When someone is sad, we are sad with them. When someone shows anger, we shake our head and demonstrate anger with them. When they feel heard and understood, they feel psychologically safe to give you accurate feedback.It normalizes emotions.When we cognitively understand that we are feeling anger or disgust, and not just living in the feeling, it allows us to begin to breakdown the why behind it. When we dig that deep, we can process responses that are out of context. Emotions should happen in the appropriate time, in an appropriate amount. Checking the why can help us untangle complex situations from our past, and help us deal with emotions in healthier ways in the future.Also, rather than judging emotions, when we learn microexpressions, it brings our brains into the equation, so our responses are rarely trigger-happy. We are able to be curious about the why behind it, which is much more helpful in the long run.If you’d like to keep learning about microexpressions, download a PDF with more detailed notes from this episode with all citations: https://psychiatrypodcast.com/resource-page/If you'd like to try out the app that trains people how to read microexpression, go here: IOS Emotion Connection App
Do Hormonal Contraceptives Cause Depression? How Do Estrogen and Progesterone Influence Behavior and The Brain?sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticMany women take hormonal contraceptives as a way of preventing pregnancy, or for other health reasons. These contraceptives basically use hormones to stop your body from ovulating.But do you ever wonder if changing your hormones can affect more than just your chances of getting pregnant? Birth control has many positive effects too, other than just preventing unwanted pregnancy. It can help with:AcneDepression in elderlyHirsutismHeavy periodsMaintaining bone densityDecreased risk of certain cancersPremenstrual dysphoric disorderHow hormones work without the pillIn a woman that’s not on the pill, early in their cycle, they’ll have the least amounts of estrogen and progesterone in their body. Around ovulation, estrogen will rise, which changes their mood, causing them to experience more of the reward hormone, dopamine, and even the happy hormone, serotonin. Later in the cycle, progesterone rises too, changing the emotional state again. The drop in hormones and Progesterone is the depressant hormone, so this is typically what causes the pre-period moodiness that some women feel.This hormonal shift does not happen, or happens very subtly in women who are on birth control.Using a hormonal contraceptive changes your body’s chemistry, and alters your hormones. When you change your body chemistry, you may have influences on your mood, desire, all sorts of things we wouldn’t normally consider when we are only looking for the benefits.Here are some of the things hormone contraceptives can effect:What women find attractiveScientists noticed that women who were ovulating, and not on the pill, had an increased attraction to more masculine faces, dominant male behavior, taller men, deeper voices, versus when they were not ovulating. Ovulating women also wanted to go to public events more, and had more sexual fantasies. When they weren’t ovulating, women looked for a man who is more empathic, more fatherly, more compassionate.DepressionOne study followed a group of women for a number of years to see if their mood changed. They found that the younger (15-19) contraceptive group was 1.7-1.8 times more at risk of depression and being prescribed antidepressants. Specifically, younger women (15-19), and those who were prescribed progesterone-based pills, were at highest risk of depression. Also, most of these women experienced the depression onset at around 2 months - 1 year.If you’re older, taking a more estrogen-based hormone, have been on it for awhile, and are not depressed and have been taking hormonal contraceptives for more than one year, I would say you are probably not at risk of developing depression because of contraceptives. Now, that said, there are tons of reasons that people get depressed—life situations, genetics, health—it’s not just related to hormones. If you are concerned about depression, talk to your doctor about it.Natural fear responseWomen who are on hormone contraceptives are more likely to experience anxiety. Natural hormone levels help with fear extinction, or the ability to overcome fears. Birth control can inhibit our ability to regulate fear in stressful situations.EmpathyIn the part of the natural cycle, before ovulation, when estrogen is higher, women have an increased ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion. Hormonal contraceptives decrease brain responsiveness, making it more difficult to process emotion, and making recognition of negative emotions harder.Reward PathwayOvulation also causes an increase in estrogen, which increases the brain reward pathways by increasing dopamine, our body’s pleasure response hormone.If you are on an oral contraceptive, the changes in hormones can cause a dampened reward processing, so there may be a decreased amount of pleasure you can experience through things like food, sex, or even social connectedness.My conclusion about the pillOverall, with the positive effects birth control has caused in society, namely, a decrease in teen pregnancy, it can be difficult how to integrate the new details emerging on the influence on mental health.I know my research into this has led me to be more aware of teens I treat who are taking hormonal contraception. If you’re looking for the benefits of the pill, there are many types of contraceptives, and because every woman is different, there is not a one-size-fits-all option. Talk to your doctor about which one is best for you.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Below are more detailed notes that Dr. Mona Mojtahedzadeh and Dr. David Puder worked on together to provide the scientific foundation to this episode.Intro:Our goal is to empower women to know more about the recent debate in the relationship between contraception and mental health.I first started thinking about this after hearing a talk by Kelly BroganWorldwide, 100 million women use “the pill”.Approximately 82% of sexually active women in the USA use oral contraceptive pills (OCP) sometime during their reproductive years.17% of women aged 15-44 use “the pill”.The last decade in the USA, rates of teenage birth rate along with teenage pregnancy and abortion have decreased. Most researchers attribute this victory to improved access to contraception. (Carrol, 2017- New York Times)OCPs are prescribed for various reasons: prevention of unintended pregnancy; decreased risk of ovarian, endometrial, and colorectal cancers; preservation of bone mineral density; and at times prescribed for PMDD symptoms; acne and hirsutism; heavy menstrual bleeding. (Cheslak-Postava, 2014)Do Hormonal Contraceptives Increase Risk of Depression?One million women in the Denmark national registry, followed for 6.4 years (Skovlund, 2016), ages 15 to 19 years old had higher risk of depression, even when they had no history of depression.The hormonal contraceptive group age 15-19 had an increased relative risk of 1.7 of first incidence of depression diagnosed in a psychiatric hospitalThe hormonal contraceptive group age 15-19 had an increases relative risk of 1.8 of first incidence of using an antidepressantHard numbers are for the non-use, 10k prescriptions of antidepressants over 1.1 million person years vs use of oral combined 18.5k antidepressant prescriptions over 0.91 million person years (RR 1.8).The all progestin-only pill group age 15-19 had a 2.2 risk of first time antidepressant and 1.9 first diagnosis of depression in a psychiatric hospitalRisk did not increase till 2 months after initiation of hormonal contraceptive use, peaked at 6 months and after one year decreased significantlyAnother study of 1236 women, ages 20-39 from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) found that “women who had used OC during adolescence showed an at least 1.7 times higher 1-year prevalence of depression in adulthood compared to both women who had never used OC, and to women who had only started using OC after adolescence.” (Anderl, 2017)Some critics:Large-cohort population, based studies (especially if the data is from an administrative database) have more chances to find a statistically significant result even if the results are not clinically significant. However in the Denmark study all correlations showed similar things which would not occur if there was no link, and relative risks were high, especially for adolescent women.Are women who are accessing hormonal contraceptive methods accessing more health care system in general? Previous studies looking at rates of depression did not find a correlation with OCPs or some even reported improvements in mood. Months earlier there was a systematic review study published in the European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. Although they made it clear that we were lacking prospective studies, the data that did exist at the time showed no correlation between hormonal contraception and women’s moods, or actually had improvement in mood. Therefore, this new study has to be weighed along with the rest and can not replace all prior research.In the study it states that for every 100 women who did not used hormonal birth control, 1.7 were later prescribed antidepressant. For every 100 who did use, 2.2 were prescribed antidepressant. The difference is 0.5 percentage points meaning that if this was a randomized control trial, for every 200 women treated, one need to be treated with antidepressant. (Carrol, 2017- New York Times)The amount and types of progesterone hormone varies between different hormonal contraceptives. (Antiandrogenic progesterones are less possible to cause mood lability, lower chances of acne, and lower chances of increased appetite or weight gain.)We should not underestimate the role of molecular genetics in determining effects of hormonal contraceptives on women.“This study showed an association between birth control and depression. Specifically, both women who took oral contraceptives (which go through the bloodstream and to the whole body) and women who had progesterone IUDs (such as the Skyla or Mirena, which concentrate hormones in the uterus) seemed to have higher rates of depression. But like all epidemiologic studies, it can only prove that there is some correlation between hormones and depression (and only in this particular data set), not that one causes the other.” David Grimes, MDPathophysiology: How do OCPs work in general compared to natural states of hormonal secretions?1. Hormonal levelsWe want to weigh effects of amounts of hormones vs effects of pulsatility of hormones. OCPs have much smaller levels of estrogen and progesterone (progesterone> estrogen) compared to a natural woman’s cycle.In general, progesterone is more causative for depressive episodes and estrogen is more to cause elevations in mood. Antiandrogenic progesterones are said to be causing less of mood lability and negative emotional effects.2. Mode of secretion In the past it has been stated rapid declines in hormones have a negative impact on mood.In natural circumstances, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus functions as pulse generator, resulting in hourly release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in to the hypothalamic-pituitary portal vasculature.This leads to a pulsatile plasma profile of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)LH and FSH lead to a pulsatile increase in estrogen and progesterone.The pulsatile fashion of LH and FSH also regulates the growth and maturation of the graafian follicle in the ovary.Our neural clocks termed the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator determines the pulse frequency but the amount of GnRH released in each pulse is determined by our estrogen and progestins.OCPs steady state inhibits GnRH therefore there is a lower level of estrogen and progesterone and no longer rapid shifts in estrogen and progesterone.In one study, triphasic OCPs (which correlate more to natural menstrual cycles) were more related to first episode depression than monophasic ones. (Cheslak-Postava, 2014) 3. Feedback mechanismsIn a natural menstrual cycle, we have both negative AND positive feedback mechanisms involved. Approaching mid-cycle, we have a 36 hours increase in levels of estrogen which leads to a surge in FSH, LH further to which we have a second surge in estrogen this time accompanied by progesterone prolonging through the second half of the cycle.OCPs solely act by negative feedback, decreasing hormonal states on all 3 levels therefore resulting in a much decreased states of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The low steady fashion of hormone exposure with OCPs, prevents FSH and LH surges and therefore subsequent ovulation.The pulsatile nature of hormonal secretions is essential for positive feedback mechanisms leading to maintenance of normal ovulatory menstrual cycles.Women are most euphoric around their ovulatory phases.OCPs prevent ovulation by providing a steady level of hormonal exposure therefore preventing the body to go through the plasma surges of the FSH/LH and subsequently the sex steroids. Because of this effect, women on OCP are deprived of the natural mood elevations experienced around and post time of ovulation.
Point 2: OCP Have Unique Effects on the BrainHormonal contraceptives cross the blood brain barrierPulsatile nature of natural hormonesIn puberty the surges of sex hormones cause organizational changes in the brain (Peper, 2011)“Typical gray matter decreases in prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices taking place during puberty and adolescence were found to be related to increased levels of estradiol in girls and to increased levels of testosterone in boys.”OCP bind receptors in different brain regionsImmediate changes (seconds to minutes)Decreased endogenous estrogen and progesteroneEstrogen inhibits secretion of FSHProgesterone inhibits secretion of LHAbsence of normal fluctuationsStrongly reduced testosterone levels (to the level of follicular phase)Decreased effect of oxytocin on social-reward processingEpigenetic processes (takes months)28 women, ages 16 to 35, on hormonal contraception for 3 months were compared to controls and found to have these differences in the brain on MRI. (Lisofsky, 2016) The women on contraceptives had decreased gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus.Sex steroid hormones have effects on the cortical and subcortical regions involved in cognitive and emotional processing. Addition of progesterone to hormone therapy, has been shown to cause adverse mood effects in women. Mechanisms include: activation of (Y aminobutyric acid A) GABA-A receptor which is the major inhibitory system in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans. Also, external progestins more than natural progesterone, increase levels of monoamine oxidase which degrades serotonin concentrations. (Kleiber, 1996)
Hormonal contraceptives decrease the ability to have fear extinctionWomen have 2x the rate of anxiety disorders, compared to men, specifically starting after pubertyEstrogen can reduce fear, by enhancing fear extinctionA single dose of estrogen can reduce fear extinctionLow estrogen levels are associated with higher fear conditioningIn one study, women with lower estrogen when showed a violent video, on subsequent days had elevated skin conductance and when going through a fear extinction task and also had stronger intrusive memories (Wegerer, 2014)High estrogen facilitates fear extinction and protects against the effects of stress by causing:increased activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)- amygdala circuit during fear extinctionIncreased activation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during emotional response inhibition important in fear regulationDownregulation of emotional and stress reactivity in the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, ACC, orbitofrontal cortexWomen on OC during fear extinction:Displayed higher activation in the amygdala, thalamus, ACC, and vmPFC, and also had slower habituating skin conductance responses, which could suggest impaired fear extinctionWomen on OC had decreased reactivity of HPA axis (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis):When cortisol was given to women on OCs, they had increased hippocampal activation during a fear condition whereas in men or naturally cycling women had decreased activation.When in a non-stressful situation OC users had decreased amygdala activity towards negative pictures (Petersen, 2015)EmpathyA single dose of estrogen in one study increased men’s empathy (increased physiological response to another’s pain, increased emotional (vicarious) reactivity) (Olsson, 2016)A recent systematic review concluded that facial emotional processing is enhanced during the follicular phase and oral contraceptives decreased brain responsiveness during different facial emotion processing tasks. Postpartum and pregnant women may be in a hypervigilant state in regards to facial emotion processing. (Osorio, 2018)Reward PathwaysEstrogen increases reward pathways by increasing dopamine whereas OC dampen reward processing changing social and sexual stimuliPartner Selection and Relationship:Women during ovulation had preference to more masculine faces, those on OCs did not have change in preference during the cycle. (Penton-Voak, 1999)Women have preference of more masculine bodies when their fertility is highest (Little, 2007)Other preferences include: vocal masculinity, video clips of dominant behavior, taller menChange in behavior seen: greater interest in public events where they could meet men, more sexual fantasiesWomen during ovulation are more attracted to more masculine male faces. This was a study of 42 female volunteers at 2 different phases of their menstrual cycle. In general women favored a more masculine face but during ovulation there was an increased choice for the more masculine face. (Johnston, 2001)In women during the period before ovulation, testosterone normally predicts preference for masculine faces, but in women on OCs there was no link (Bobst, 2014)Preferences change in marriage when women get off of their OCs, if their partner is unattractive they may remain with higher dissatisfaction and if their partner is attractive they will have higher satisfaction (russell, 2014)Another study found that highest sexual satisfaction in women was found in those who either met their partner when not on OC and did not get on an OC or those who met their partner on an OC and continued on an OC (Roberts, 2014) Citations and Further reading:Further reading on IUD: article showing how uncommonly IUDs are used in the USAnderl, C., & Chen, F. S. (2017). Oral Contraceptive Use in Adolescence Predicts Vulnerability to Depression in Adulthood.Bobst, C., Sauter, S., Foppa, A., & Lobmaier, J. S. (2014). Early follicular testosterone level predicts preference for masculinity in male faces–But not for women taking hormonal contraception. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 41, 142-150.Brunton, L. L., Chabner, B., & Knollmann, B. C. (Eds.). (2011). Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics.Cheslack-Postava, K., Keyes, K. M., Lowe, S. R., & Koenen, K. C. (2015). Oral contraceptive use and psychiatric disorders in a nationally representative sample of women. Archives of women's mental health, 18(1), 103-111.Grimes, D. A. (2015). Epidemiologic research with administrative databases: red herrings, false alarms and pseudo-epidemics. Human Reproduction, 30(8), 1749-1752.Johnston, V. S., Hagel, R., Franklin, M., Fink, B., & Grammer, K. (2001). Male facial attractiveness: Evidence for hormone-mediated adaptive design. Evolution and human behavior, 22(4), 251-267.Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., & Burriss, R. P. (2007). Preferences for masculinity in male bodies change across the menstrual cycle. Hormones and Behavior, 51(5), 633-639.Lisofsky, N., Riediger, M., Gallinat, J., Lindenberger, U., & Kühn, S. (2016). Hormonal contraceptive use is associated with neural and affective changes in healthy young women. Neuroimage, 134, 597-606.Montoya, E. R., & Bos, P. A. (2017). How oral contraceptives impact social-emotional behavior and brain function. Trends in cognitive sciences, 21(2), 125-136.Olsson, A., Kopsida, E., Sorjonen, K., & Savic, I. (2016). Testosterone and estrogen impact social evaluations and vicarious emotions: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. Emotion, 16(4), 515.Osório, F. L., de Paula Cassis, J. M., Machado de Sousa, J. P., Poli-Neto, O., & Martín-Santos, R. (2018). Sex Hormones and Processing of Facial Expressions of Emotion: A Systematic Literature Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 529.Peper, J. S., Pol, H. H., Crone, E. A., & Van Honk, J. (2011). Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls: a mini-review of neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience, 191, 28-37.Penton-Voak, I. S., Perrett, D. I., Castles, D. L., Kobayashi, T., Burt, D. M., Murray, L. K., & Minamisawa, R. (1999). Menstrual cycle alters face preference. Nature, 399(6738), 741.Petersen, N., & Cahill, L. (2015). Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli is influenced by oral contraceptive use. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 10(9), 1266-1272.Roberts, S. C., Little, A. C., Burriss, R. P., Cobey, K. D., Klapilová, K., Havlíček, J., ... & Petrie, M. (2014). Partner choice, relationship satisfaction, and oral contraception: The congruency hypothesis. Psychological Science, 25(7), 1497-1503.Russell, V. M., McNulty, J. K., Baker, L. R., & Meltzer, A. L. (2014). The association between discontinuing hormonal contraceptives and wives’ marital satisfaction depends on husbands’ facial attractiveness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17081-17086.Skovlund, C. W., Mørch, L. S., Kessing, L. V., & Lidegaard, Ø. (2016). Association of hormonal contraception with depression. JAMA psychiatry, 73(11), 1154-1162.Wegerer, M., Kerschbaum, H., Blechert, J., & Wilhelm, F. H. (2014). Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life. Neurobiology of learning and memory, 116, 145-154.https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/03/upshot/birth-control-causes-depression-not-so-fast.htmlhttp://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2016/10/birth_control_is_linked_to_depression_in_one_flawed_study_that_doesn_t_mean.htmlWorld Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund, & Key Centre for Women's Health in Society. (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: a global review of the literature. World Health Organization.Klaiber EL, Broverman DM, Vogel W, Peterson LG, Snyder MB. Individual differences in changes in mood and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity during hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1996;21(7):575-592.Appendix:OCPs have more progesterone than estrogen. They only have small amounts of estrogen to stabilize endometrial lining and to reduce bleeding.OCPs in general cause improved quality of life by different means for example by reducing bleeding.Due to the molecular genetic phenomena, if one OCP not satisfactory, changing to a different one might be a solution.IUDs are not systemically absorbed; therefore, do not inhibit ovulation. They mainly act by inflammatory responses in uterus preventing implantation of the ovum. They also act by increasing cervical mucosal thickness.Copper IUDs act by the same inflammatory responses, also copper elements in the device are said to have paralyzing effects on sperms.
Dr. Pereau is incredibly honest and vulnerable in this emotional episode as
she shares her story. Throughout it, she talks about the symptoms of her
postpartum depression, including:
* Intrusive thoughts
* Emotional disconnection from her baby
* Sleep deprivation
* Poor focus
* Problems with concentration
* Disconnection from passion and joy
* Panic attacks and anxiety
* Poor self care
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, PodfanaticOur bodies are “wired” to perform. Learning how to consciously modulate your internal sympathetic state is the key to unlocking optimal performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) facilitates survival by generating the fight-or-flight response and promotes recovery following activation (the ability to relax). The ANS achieves this by balancing two complementary systems: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). For example, your ANS is currently adjusting your pupillary diameter, respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance, sweat production, sphincter tone and postural muscles (just to name a few) to allow you to focus your eyes to read this information without passing out, falling over, overheating or urinating on yourself.The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) sends signals throughout the body to enhances its ability to respond to a perceived threat. For example, when a cave man encounters a bear, he must be able to rapidly harness enough energy to fight the bear or run away from it. The SNS achieves this by increasing oxygen mobilization, increasing heart rate and optimizing the utilization of stored energy to allow the cave man to quickly sprint away from the bear. If the threat becomes imminent (i.e. “I’m not fast enough”), “freeze” mode prompts the body to immediately enter an extreme state of energy conservation in a final attempt to maintain survival (decreased heart and respiratory rate, loss of muscle tone, etc). The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activates through myelinated nerve fibers from the nucleus ambiguus when the perceived threat has been removed and allows the body to rest and refuel. While instinct alone was sufficient to keep our cave man alive, this instinctual response system has not evolved with society’s modernization (not many of us are still being chased by angry bears). This disconnect allows the ANS to be hijacked by perceived threats on a continual basis and is an underlying cause of chronic stress, pathologic anxiety and poor performance.The “freeze” mode can turn into a third system, with the activation of the unmyelinated dorsal vagal parasympathetic system. This system is “shut down mode” seen in animals that go limp when there is no escape possible. This is the place where public speakers lose their ability to get words out. This is also the place where athletes completely fall apart. This is the space our brain goes when traumatic things occur. We no longer feel our body and may feel light headed. Effective training prevents the performer to enter this place.Breathing to relaxWhile the ANS has various “access points,” the most accessible conscious modulating benefit is often achieved through mastery of controlled breathing techniques. The goal of breathing exercises is to consciously create a desired state through stimulating the body’s chemoreceptors (located in the medulla oblongata) and subsequently causing the body to calm down.The human body achieves maximized PNS activation during sleep. There are 3 major and distinct sleep stages, each with a correlating breath pattern. Relaxation through PNS activation is best achieved by controlled mastery of breathing patterns that replicate the unconscious breathing cycles seen in sleep onset and non-REM sleep. Sleep on-set is best replicated by utilizing “clearing” breaths. To use “clearing” breaths, exhale out fully and hold for as long as you can, which allows for an increase in pCO2. Repeat this 2-5 times before transitioning into 4-8 cycles of relaxed breathing in a 4 second, 7 second, then 8 second pattern. CLEARING BREATH:Close your eyesBreathe out through your nose regularlyBreathe out through your tightened lips until you feel a knot in your abdomen (about 8 sec)Hold at full exhalation for 5-15 sec (the duration will increase with time and practice)Repeat 2-5 times 4-7-8 BREATHING CYCLE: Close your eyesBreathe in through your nose for 4 secHold at maximum inspiration for 7 secExhale through your nose over 8 secRepeat 4-8 times (~2 min)As your skill and comfort increases with these breathing techniques, you can achieve deeper relaxation when combined with visualization, positive self-talk and guided meditation.Breathing for activationBreathing for activation is best achieved by replicating the rapid breathing pattern seen during maximum sympathetic activation. A hallmark feature of panic attacks is rapid, shallow breathing (i.e. hyperventilation). Hyperventilation leads to decreased pCO2 which signals SNS activation, which jumpstarts physiologic shifts that can maximize your stored energy availability. Hyperventilation is followed by 1 or 2 clearing breaths to promote balanced activation of both the SNS and PNS. Without clearing breaths the SNS may become over-activated and lead to decreased performance.RAPID CYCLING: diaphragmatic nasal breathing with use of accessory breathing musclesInhale rapidly over 1 secExhale rapidly over 1 secMaintain pattern for 30-45 secs.CLEARING BREATH:Inhale regularlyExhale until you feel a knot in your abdomenHold at full expiration for 5-10 sec (the duration will increase with time and practice)Repeat 1-2 times (~30 secs)As your skill and comfort increases with these breathing techniques, you can achieve heightened activation by combining focused breathing with visualization, positive self-talk and internal coaching.CAUTION: Breathing techniques, especially hyperventilation, may trigger lightheadedness, extremity tingling and even loss of consciousness. Due to these risks, these techniques should be practiced in a safe environment with supervision (not in water, while driving, etc.). Additionally, these skills require practice to achieve optimal effectiveness. Start slowly and increase the duration of breathing exercises with your comfort level.Performance DayMany athletes struggle with over-activation on performance day. Without proper training, it is easy for the pressure of performance to push even the most highly-trained and physically fit athletes into “freeze” mode. To maintain optimal performance, athletes must be able to monitor and modulate their internal state to maintain optimal activation (see the performance activation curve below). It is also important to note that the level of necessary activation varies from sport to sport.For athletes who struggle with “freezing” or “choking” on game day, it is helpful to perform a retrospective behavior chain and begin to build a “game day routine” to build confidence and abort future over-activation. This requires focused attention on internal monitoring, effective usage of necessary breathing techniques, visualization, positive self-talk, internal coaching and relaxation techniques. The ultimate goal is to maintain performance within the “target zone” with the ability to implement learned techniques when the athlete catches their internal state trending towards under- or over-activation. The key to success is internal monitoring and prevention.
Training DayMany athletes struggle to consistently train at the level they perform. Often athletes report frustration that they can “turn it on” during a performance but feel unable to replicate that level of intensity in daily practice. For these athletes, it is important to understand the “performance activation curve” and learn to identify and replicate game-day performance on a routine basis. This requires focused attention on breathing techniques to achieve activation (rapid cycling and clearing breaths), visualization techniques, pre-performance routine, positive self-talk and internal coaching.Join Dr. Eller on:Facebook: @PhysicalTherapyRXInstagram: rxpt_
Sensorium: Medications, Drugs (THC, Alcohol), Medical Issues, Sleep, and Free Will
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Optimize medical issues treatment:Diabetes is a common disease that when treated properly has lower rates of depression and cognitive issues.Diabetes has twice the rate of depression than that of nondiabetic comparison groupsWhen Type 2 Diabetes was brought under better control through medications, working memory significantly improvedHypertensive patients without vascular complications had deficits with speed of cognition, episodic and working memory, and executive function. Treat depression and mental health issuesTreat seizure disordersTreat OSAMedications:Reduce polypharmacy (for example when baclofen and gabapentin were taken together they had cognitive effects but when taken alone did not in one studyTake off or minimize anticholinergic medicationsMost commonly used: Hydroxyzine, Amitriptyline, Benztropine, Clozapine, Diphenhydramine, Doxepin, Imipramine, Methocarbamol, Nortriptyline, Olanzapine, Paroxetine, Quetiapine (see full list here)Take off or minimize dose of antihistamine medicationsTaper off benzodiazepines because of issues with psychomotor speed, memory, processing speed, attention, verbal memory, general intelligence, working memory, verbal reasoning (mean effect size -0.74) (xanax, klonopin, ativan, ect). Of note, after tapering off patients from chronic benzodiazepine use, there was significant improvement in sensorium. However compared to controls or normative data, there was an incomplete restoration of function at 6 months. Of note this could be because people who are on benzodiazepines often have multiple other stressors and things going on which could factor into this discrepancy. Of note, temazepam for sleep might be of less concern. Tapering off of these meds can be dangerous if done too fast; specifically there can be issues like having a seizure. Please work with a physician to slowly decrease these medications. Zolpidem if taken 8 hours prior to driving or cognitive tests, it does not cause impairment, whereas if taken 4 hours prior does. At 2 hours after ingestion it causes cognitive issues and balance issues.Minimize or take off opioids (vicodin, oxycodone)In one animal study, opioids reduced neurogenesis by 42% in the hippocampal granule cell layerReduce or eliminate topiramate and valproate (of note, sometimes valproate has been helpful in hyperactive delirium with improvement in aggression)Consider alternatives to carbamazepine or zonisomideMedications with mild sensorium issues: gabapentin does not cause cognitive changes but does sometimes have occasional sedation issues at higher doses, oxcarbazepine (slight alpha wave slowing and some some issues with sedation), trazodone (mild issues with short-term memory, verbal learning, body sway, muscle endurance)Medications without cognitive effects: Lamotrigine, Keppra (although 20% had complaints of somnolence), propranolol.Sleep issues:Poor sleep leads to decreased memory encoding, mood issues, worse concentration, driving accidentsSleep counteracts the effects of chronic stress and allows the body’s immune system to “regenerate”Set up patterns of rest (limiting caffeine and electronics at night before bed, consistent bed and wake times, and eliminating napping)Diagnose and treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea and treat with CPAP and weight loss. Uses in CPAP will improve short term memory, episodic memory, processing speed and mental flexibilityAnother study showed that CPAP improved depression scoresDrug and Alcohol issues:Get off THCPersistent cannabis use showed greater IQ decline (6 points) and worse on neuropsychological tests with greater impairment of executive functioning and processing speed. There were also problems in attention, memory, learning, verbal IQ cited in other studies. Effects were worse when frequent cannabis use was used prior to age 18.Use alcohol in moderation1-6 drinks per week was shown to reduce risk of dementia whereas >14 drinks per week increased risk in a prospective cohort studyRecognize that acutely drinking 4 beverages of alcohol impairs planning, spatial recognition, memory, attention, and therefore sensorium. Realize you have free willIn studies where they try to convince one group that they don’t have free will, it leads to them 1) being more likely to cheat 2) more likely to conform to social norms 3) reduced helping behavior and increased aggression and 4) not slow down after making an error to re-evaluate. I will go into the last finding, and in a future episode go over this in more detail.In a study that looked at what would happen to people after they read something that argued that we don’t have free will. The group that read the paper arguing against free will compared to the control, did not slow down after making a mistake like normal people do, instead they proceeded in the game at the same speed. Post-error slowing was reduced in the no-free will group, this means that after making a mistake, they did not slow down, which is usually done by control processes. This is also seen in patients with schizophrenia and children with ADHD. Weakened belief in free will (intentional control) decreases the change they will monitor their performance. Lack of belief in free will -> reduced cognitive control processing involved in action monitoring -> more careless and impulsive behaviors -> display antisocial tendencies! Questions? Look for the posts related to this content on one of my social media sites. I will try my best to answer the questions or plan to answer them in a future episode. Best Regards, Dr. David PuderFor PDF with citations: https://psychiatrypodcast.com/resource-pageSpecial thanks to intellectual and research contributions from: Rebeka Sipma, Dr. Amul Shah, Ale-salvo Daniela, Adam Borechy, and Jaime Rudyk
Exercise as a Prescription for Depression, Anxiety, Chronic Stress (like Diabetes) and Sensorium
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.The most recent podcast on the Psychiatry & Psychotherapy Podcast is on the benefits of exercise for depression and cognitive function. I cover 17 studies on the benefits of different kinds of exercise, most specifically strength training.
Optimize ExerciseStrength training may be underestimated in terms of improving cognitive function and depression. I wrote a blog about this in the past, and it is a passion of mine. Basically, strength makes people harder to kill. Strength also keeps sensorium (total body health) up when faced with unplanned medical issues.Post-ICU muscle weakness had overall worse survival outcomes.Handgrip strength predicted functional outcome in hip-fractured women.Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) increased risk of developing delirium in one large multisite study of 588 hospitalized elderly patients.Once to twice weekly resistance training over 12 months improved executive function, selective attention, and even conflict resolution, whereas balance and tone training had deteriorated function10 weeks of a supervised progressive resistance training program, performed three times a week, was shown to improve depression, as well as improve bodily pain, vitality, and social functioning. It was also shown to decrease limitations on routine activities from emotional problems.In a study looking at high and low intensities of progressive resistance training in adults >60 years old, a decrease in depression symptoms was more significant in the high intensity exercise group. The high intensity group was lifting 3x8 reps at 80% their one rep max, whereas the low intensity group was doing 20% of their one rep max. The depression scale assessed sleep, feelings of guilt, mood, anxiety and slowness of thought, speech, and action. Strength gain was directly associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms. Those in the high intensity group felt like they had more vitality than those in the other groups. Sleep quality improved significantly in all participants, with the greatest relative change in the high intensity group. Another important finding in this study was that there was an association between a change in depressive symptoms and gain in muscle strength.Exercise In GeneralOne study that looked at groups of people in a spread of 15 different studies found that a high level of physical activity had a 38% lower cognitive decline and those with low to moderate levels of physical activity had 35% lower cognitive decline than those that did notOne very recent article of a follow up of a group of 1,462 women over 44 years showed those with high fitness measured by a cycling machine had 88% lower risk of developing dementia compared to those with medium levels of fitness. Also those in the high fitness group that did develop dementia, had a delayed onset by 9.5 years compared to those with a low fitness level.Exercise-induced epigenetic changes increased BDNF in mice allowing for increased brain plasticityExercise increases BDNF, uncoupling protein 2 (important for learning and memory), executive function of cognition (scheduling, planning, monitoring, task coordination), and therefore is neuro-generative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective. Further, it counteracts the effects of stress, both future stress (decreases learned helplessness when subjected to overwhelming stress), and past stress.Exercise in the elderly was associated with improved executive function and processing speedExercise reduces the risk of cancer occurrence, progression, and mortality (Dhabhar 2014)Exercise Duke Study: Exercise and Zoloft have a similar effectLifestyle changes upregulate and downregulate hundreds of genes. Exercise and Diabetes:One study on strength training of type 2 diabetes patients had those with diabetes only train one leg three times per week for 6 weeks. After clamping off the legs, they found the trained leg had better blood flow, increased leg glucose clearance, increased GLUT4, insulin receptor, protein kinase B-alph/B, glycogen synthase and GS total activity. Strength training enhances insulin action in skeletal muscles.A study compared strength training with endurance training and found that the only a significant improvement was seen in the strength training group:decline in HbA1c (8.3% to 7.1%),decrease blood glucose (204mg/dL to 147mg/dL)Total cholesterol (207mg/dL to 183mg/dL)LDL (120mg/dL to 106mg/dL)Trigliceride levels (229mg/dL to 150mg/dL)My exercise recommendations:I use a model called “Starting Strength” and recommend this book and watching these videos on technique:SquatDeadliftBenchPressBasic Intro to Barbell TrainingDo 3 sets of 5 repetitions each to start out. Consider getting a coach if you live by one, or an online coach if you want to be a garage warrior like I am!This is a link to online coaching (use the discount code of “courage”)https://startingstrengthonlinecoaching.com/ref/courage/Best Regards,Dr. PuderFor PDF with citations with links to articles go here.
Diet on Cognitive Function, Brain Optimization, Sensorium Part 2
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.How do we optimize our diet for total brain function?What are the best diets for the brain and cognitive function? How much does diet influence our sensorium?What particular foods are important? How do we change our genes to optimize our brain?For PDF with citations, detailed notes, (which can be freely shared) go to: My Resource Page
Schizophrenia with Dr. Cummings: Controversies, Brain Science, Crime, History, Exercise, Successful Treatment
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.In this episode, Dr. Puder addresses the fascinating realm of schizophrenia with Dr. Cummings, a previous guest in the show. Dr. Cummings is a psychiatrist with a wealth of experience from working at Patton State Hospital in California, one of the biggest forensic hospitals in the world.Defining SchizophreniaSwedish survey about misperceptions of the environment found that roughly 50% of the population have had misperceptions that could be considered psychotic in nature.The Loss of Brain in SchizophreniaSchizophrenic patients lose 2% of brain mass per year for the first 5 year in the course of illness.Living with Schizophrenia and Perception of RealityAre Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia Precipitated by Medications?The Pathology, Biology, and Genetics of SchizophreniaCannabis Use and Risk For SchizophreniaCounter-arguments Against Robert Whitaker’s “Anatomy of an Epidemic”Emil Kraepelin, and the Early Studies on SchizophreniaThe majority of schizophrenic patients during Kraepelin’s observation became vegetative in their 40s.After the advent of antipsychotic medications, schizophrenic patients are able to function until their 70s-80sGitlin 2001 Neuroleptic Discontinuation StudyExacerbation or relapse was almost universal within 2 years in those who discontinued antipsychoticsSchizophrenia Prevention in High Risk PopulationAustralian study on children of schizophrenic parents (Yung, 2011)Australian Study on Children of Schizophrenic ParentsCrime, Violence, Mass Shootings and SchizophreniaMedical Management of Schizophrenia1st Break PsychosisLong-acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Early IllnessMedication AdherenceExerciseExercise for schizophrenia increased hippocampal size by 12% vs. -1% for non exercising groups of patients (Pajonk, 2010)Lifestyle, Diet Optimization
Gitlin, M., Nuechterlein, K., Subotnik, K. L., Ventura, J., Mintz, J., Fogelson, D. L., ... & Aravagiri, M. (2001). Clinical outcome following neuroleptic discontinuation in patients with remitted recent-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(11), 1835-1842.Pajonk, F. G., Wobrock, T., Gruber, O., Scherk, H., Berner, D., Kaizl, I., ... & Backens, M. (2010). Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(2), 133-143.Yung, A. R., & Nelson, B. (2011). Young people at ultra high risk for psychosis: research from the PACE clinic. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 33, s143-s160.
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.This week I had a discussion with Dr. Darcy Trenkle on the difficulty of providers to get psychiatric treatment, using ourselves as the examples. In a recent article nearly 40% of physicians surveyed said they would be reluctant to seek formal medical care for treatment of a mental health problem because of concern that this may put their medical license in jeopardy. Physicians have three times the national average for suicide and have unique stressors and often a culture not conducive to seeking help. We discussed difficulties we had in contemplating getting care for different issues we faced. Hopefully this will open a discussion regarding the conflicts providers have in engaging needed help. Dr. Trenkle is a psychiatrist in Southern California and is affiliated with Loma Linda University Health. She received her Medical Degree from Loma Linda University School of Medicine. She completed her residency training at Loma Linda University in 2015. She is the Medical Director for Electroconvulsive Therapy as well as Program Development for the Behavioral Medical Center at Loma Linda University. If you are a Medical Student, Resident or Attending listening to this and need help, please reach out to a local provider. We are open to receive emails if you are local, our names are searchable in the Loma Linda email system.
Sensorium: Total Brain Function Optimization Part 1
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Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, Podfanatic Sensorium is the total brain capacity for focusing, processing, and interpreting. It is not a static state—it can fluctuate throughout the day. It can be influenced by sleep, food, stress, exercise, drugs, medications, and long term, through epigenetic phenomenon. If there is damage to the structure of the brain, it can permanently lowered.It is a slope, which we all move up and down on, based on our baseline, but then also influenced by many factors.
Figure 1: Line representing how sensorium (total brain function) changes based on positive and negative influences.
In your 20s and 30s you are very far on the left side of the line. If you get stressed, sleep deprived, starving, maybe have a small infection, you may still be able to think, but just less clearly. If you did those same things to an elderly person, they would be sent into a full delirium, hallucinating, throwing things, yelling, seeing spiders on the wall, and looking psychotic. In this way it is common for an elderly person with dementia, they can be more confused in the evening then in the morning, they call this “sundowning”. We all have a baseline level of brain function, and this can be optimized by several factors like good sleep, good amounts of exercise, good mental functions (like reading), meaningful relationships, good spiritual practice, and meaningful work. We can also lower our sensorium through certain drugs, excessive alcohol, significant medical issues, poor sleep, poor diet, unrelenting stress, and untreated medical issues (like out of control diabetes or obstructive sleep apnea without treatment). This applies directly to psychiatry, because we want to think about how to make our patients the most functional human beings possible, with the highest sensorium, so they can engage in meaningful work and life. This applies directly to psychotherapy, because the chance of significant work taking place in psychotherapy will be lower if your patient is confused, and unable to integrate new memories and new ways of processing information.I am going to go through some of the science of how sensorium is lowered or strengthened. I am going to hit the categories briefly and in future episodes go through them in more detail. We will start with what delirium is—very, very poor sensorium. Delirium is defined as an acute confusional state, decreased significantly from baseline. For example, an older person with a urinary tract infection who starts hearing and seeing things with no history of ever having such issues, has what is called hyperactive delirium. There is also something called hypoactive delirium, where someone is confused, down, seems acutely depressed, but is not hallucinating. Delirium has a waxing and waning course, meaning it might be worse at sometimes in the day and then better later. This affects up to 38% of older hospitalized patients. Studying what can cause, or worsen, delirium can also inform our study of lesser severe states of sensorium issues. For example, here are some things that provoke or worsen delirium (Ahmed, 2014; Laurila, 2008):InfectionIllness severityAdverse drug effectsAnticholinergic drugs (like benadryl)Central Nervous System Depressants (benzodiazepines, opioids) (Pisani, 2009)Polypharmacy (multiple drugs that decrease sensorium)Undertreated pain Pre-existing dementia (baseline brain function)Vision impairmentMalnutrition (measured by low albumin level)Long hospital staysStressful eventsHeavy alcohol useThis led me to be curious about how to optimize sensorium, both in how to decrease dives in sensorium, and also how to increase it long term. I wanted to present this topic early in my podcast because it is a way that I think about psychiatry and psychotherapy and influences many of my decisions. First, I will go into 3 stories, which illustrate the power of treating someone with sensorium in mind. I will change the demographic information to protect their identities. Jake was a 60 year old man who came into my clinic after being on disability for 10 years. He had lost his daughter, which still weighed heavily on him. He used to be a business executive, having run several companies with over two hundred employees. He was an expert at turning around dysfunctional companies that were about to fail, even to the point of needing to let go of all their staff and facing shutting down. At a certain point 10 years ago he had had a head injury, with loss of consciousness for greater than one hour. He had needed to be hospitalized afterwards. He was put on pain medications and muscle relaxants, and was subsequently unable to control his anger, flying into fits of rage, throwing things, yelling at staff and acting ways that got him fired. Afterwards, Jake ended up on chronic disability with little hope of working again.Jake had a hard time reading books like he had before, and had general issues with focusing and completing tasks. In my initial assessment, I focused on giving him hope that I thought he could optimize his brain function and improve his sensorium. We started an intensive outpatient program to help him overcome the loss of his daughter, and so I could manage his medication closely. I tapered him off his opioids, benzodiazepine, and baclofen (a muscle relaxant that is centrally acting). We also worked on optimizing positive things, like doing strength and cardiovascular exercise, and diet changes. His concentration returned; he was able to work through his grief, and after the intensive outpatient program we focused each session we had on re-launching his life. He eventually was able to get a position as a CEO of a big company, and within months the profits were up at the company and he was able to do meaningful work. Another example is a middle aged woman who worked as a therapist. Beth was having issues with memory and reading things. She always felt like she was in a fog. She had a difficult time with keeping her schedule and was frequently missing things. She was worried she might be having dementia. We did several exercises, including helping her give up her chronic anger she had towards an ex. We switched her migraine medication from 2 things that lower sensorium (topiramate and an anticholinergic amitriptyline) to another medications which does not lower sensorium (Cymbalta). We also did some lifestyle changes, like 4 days per week of exercise and eating more healthy food. Her memory and focus came back and she once again found her work meaningful and pleasurable. Tom was a man in his mid 40s who could not focus and felt like he was depressed. He came to me wanting ADHD medication and something for depression. But on further history he had no history of ADHD in childhood, but only in the last 4 years. He had gained weight into his 30s and 40s and was over 300 pounds. He would wake up with headaches, and he had out of control type 2 diabetes. He ate fast food and drank alcohol 3-4 times per week, usually 3-4 servings per night. I was concerned he had sleep apnea, which he did, and we got him started on wearing a sleep mask and losing some weight for a long term solution. We cut out soda, fast food, and other non-healthy foods. I had Tom focus on working through his marriage conflicts, and his chronic stress from work also decreased with some therapy.Over the course of 2 years, he lost 50 pounds. His diabetes was under better control. He was also able to increase his strength through strength training. He doubled his strength and now is able to decrease his medications he used for diabetes to only metformin. He had also stopped drinking alcohol, except for maybe one drink per week. He would meal prep and was eating high quality food, mostly in line with a mediterranean diet. He said his focus was the best it had ever been and felt purpose and meaning in his work and life. His relationship had also improved and he enjoyed time with his kids and wife. Chronic Stress Decreases Sensorium:The issue is not stress, but rather stress beyond our scope of comprehending it, like near death experiences and also chronic stress which never resolves.Stress needs a recovery before adaptation can occurTrauma needs to be visited in a way that can be processed and catabolized. You need to re-experience aspects of the trauma, but in a new way, with a trusted connected person. Chronic psychological stress caused hippocampal-dependent cognitive deficits, in particular the neurons which looked like trees, had less branches after 21 days, in rats restrained in metal wire 6 hours per day for 21 days. (McLaughlin, 2007)In part 2, I will go through more details on things that increase or decrease sensorium. Ahmed, S., Leurent, B., & Sampson, E. L. (2014). Risk factors for incident delirium among older people in acute hospital medical units: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age and ageing, 43(3), 326-333.Laurila, J. V., Laakkonen, M. L., Laurila, J. V., Timo, S. E., & Reijo, T. S. (2008). Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium in a frail geriatric population. Journal of psychosomatic research, 65(3), 249-254.Pisani, M. A., Murphy, T. E., Araujo, K. L., Slattum, P., Van Ness, P. H., & Inouye, S. K. (2009). Benzodiazepine and opioid use and the duration of ICU delirium in an older population. Critical care medicine, 37(1), 177.McLaughlin, K. J., Gomez, J. L., Baran, S. E., & Conrad, C. D. (2007). The effects of chronic stress on hippocampal morphology and function: an evaluation of chronic restraint paradigms. Brain research, 1161, 56-64.
A Journey Learning Psychotherapy, with Randy Stinnett, Psy.D
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.This week I (David Puder), had a discussion with Randy Stinnett, Psy.D, regarding his journey to become an excellent therapist. Randy shares aspects of his journey and insights. His enthusiasm is contagious. He discusses formative influences including Habib Davanloo, Donald Kalsched, and Todd Burley.
I asked Randy to give a summary of his 5 recommendations for someone aspiring to be an excellent therapist, which compliment the dialogue on this podcast:Find teachers and mentors early on in your training as a psychotherapist who have demonstrated mastery and effectiveness as therapists and learn as much as you can from them. The most valuable impact on your training as a therapist will not come principally from textbooks and research on psychotherapy (though you should be an avid consumer of these), as much as it will come through a relationship with a teacher or mentor who skillfully embodies the knowledge and craft of a psychotherapist. Don't try to copy that person but rather be yourself, and be open to learning from many teachers.In addition to the content of the patient's speech and thought processes, focus on the interpersonal process level of the therapeutic interaction. Periodically ask yourself when working with a patient "What is happening right now between the two of us that may be re-enacting an important relationship or relational pattern pertinent to their presenting problem?" In addition to the patient's verbal and thought content, focusing on the non-verbal/bodily/behavioral/relational level of experience in the moment will often provide a doorway into the conflicts and struggles the patient is really there to address.Read literature and research on psychotherapy theory and technique related to reprocessing emotional memory as a potent change-factor in psychotherapy. The "common-factors" of the psychotherapist are necessary but not sufficient to bring about lasting change. You have to understand how to facilitate a reprocessing effect of the emotionally-based relational trauma memory in the context of an empathically attuned therapeutic relationship. Never stop learning about how to creatively do this.Position yourself to receive quality feedback on your work as a therapist. This includes having skilled supervisors/mentors view your actual therapy work and provide you with useful critiques to improve your craft. Feedback can come through a traditional supervisory relationship but can often come through belonging to a formal psychotherapy institute such as a regional psychoanalytic training institute, and others. My own experience training for several years with the Gestalt Associates Training of Los Angeles (GATLA) was priceless for the quality feedback I received while doing real life work in front of a group of fellow therapists as well as a master level trainer.Pursue your own psychotherapy. Your own unaddressed conflicts, traumas, and personality features will undoubtedly influence what you focus on in therapy. Your own internal reactions while working with the patient (i.e., "countertransference") can be of great help while working with a patient. However, your internal reactions can also hinder your effectiveness as a therapist if you end up avoiding what should be focused on during the session. Personal psychotherapy will be invaluable in identifying and reprocessing these vulnerable areas in our own selves, as fellow human travelers on the same road as our patients, so as to be as effective as possible for our patients.Download: PHQ-9Download: GAD-7Link to Randy Stinnett, Psy.D Short CV
Inpatient Child and Adolescent Suicidality, “Culture of death”, “13 Reasons Why” with Dr. Britt
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Dr. Britt, an expert with three decades of experience, breaks down the increasing trend in teen suicide.In this episode I will be interviewing William Britt, PhD level clinical psychologist, an expert in cognitive behavioral therapy, object relations therapy, EMDR and a board certified neuropsychologist. He runs cognitive rehabilitation groups and neuropsychological assessments, and supervises neuropsychological fellows and interns. He also works closely with the psychiatric residents teaching about suicide. In this episode, Dr. William Britt explores his experiences running an inpatient psychiatric group for 5 to 13 year olds who are being treated for violence or attempted suicide, using uses a method based on Irving Yalom’s inpatient group psychotherapy technique.We discuss how the trend of teen suicide has increased over the years. We also cover common bullying tactics and how cyber bullying has changed society. We then discuss how to use the group's support to help each other move away from being suicidal. We explore how the Netflix TV series “Thirteen Reasons Why” has influenced young minds and the new terms the patients are using.In the end, Dr. Britt and Dr. Puder answers how we adapt and recover from trauma, and how we find meaning and value within stress.
Link to show on: iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher, Overcast, PlayerFM, PodBean, TuneIn, Podtail, Blubrry, Podfanatic13 Reasons Not To Commit Suicide by Dr. BrittCompiled from insights from adolescent patients in inpatient group therapy.You will lose your future. There will be no chance to fulfill your dreams, choose your occupation, and continue your family line.You will devastate your family. You may think they will feel sad for a short time, but they will be devastated for the remainder of their lives. You may not feel like they care, but deep down you know they do. Often families separate because of the pain and blame. If anger or revenge is part of your reason, you will not be alive to see how your targets respond. You will be dead and have no consciousness of what happens afterward to those in this life.You will hurt your friends. They will be grieving for a long time, and likely feel they have failed you.Your family and friends will feel terribly guilty that they were unable to help you and will struggle painfully with that guilt.There is always a part of you that wants to live, so you move from a wish to die to a wish to live and back again. If you kill yourself when the wish to die is strongest, while you are dying, you may regret it because you realize you really want to live, but it will be too late.You open the door for younger siblings and cousins to follow in your footsteps when they reach your age, deciding that since you handled pain by killing yourself they should also, which compounds family pain with more losses.Whoever finds your body will be traumatized for years with the memory of what you looked like.You lose the chance to have your pain treated by medication and therapy.If you are seeking to rejoin a loved one, you must ask, would that person want you to die so young? The answer is no.If you believe in God and that He has a purpose for your life, you must ask yourself if He wants you to take your own life before living out that purpose.It is important to consider that you are alive because of the wish of your ancestors to continue their family line. If only one ancestor over thousands of years had decided to marry someone else, you would not have been born.You must consider your legacy. What memory do you want your family and friends to carry with them? You will be the one they remember who you took your own life and they will never understand why.Although you can start a self-harm action, there is no guarantee it will succeed. You may experience terrible pain, and you may end up disabled because of injury to some part of your body or brain. Then life will be even worse for you.If you read this and our struggling with thoughts of suicide, please call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-8255
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.In this episode, Dr. Cummings and I discuss psychopathy: the fearless, empathyless people, who see others as objects, and have the inability to attach within relationships. Dr. Michael Cummings recently contributed to a book called “Violence in Psychiatry,” detailing the biological aspects of psychopathy, edited by Stephen Stahl. Dr. Cummings works at Patton State Hospital, one of the biggest forensic hospitals in the world. He is the Yoda of the psychiatric world, with many other psychiatrists bringing him their most complex and difficult cases. In this episode we cover:History of psychopathyInfluence of early life traumasProsocial careers of psychopathsThe emotion psychopaths fail to seeBiological components in psychopathyBDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor)Prefrontal area (parent of the brain that warns us “that is not a good idea”)AmygdalaWhy psychopathy has not been bred out of existenceAdvice when you are in a relationship with a psychopathWhat drugs make someone look psychopathicEffect of alcohol andmethamphetamines on the brainInfluence of cocaine on the brainWhy more men are violent psychopathsAnd treatment of this group of people (clozapine’s influence on glutamate)The Story of Phineas GageWe also wrestle with how to increase the percentage of psychopaths that end up helping society vs percentage that become criminals.
Warburton, K and Stahl S (Editors). Violence in Psychiatry. The Neurobiology of Psychopathy. Cambridge University Press 2016), pp. 200-05CV of Dr. Michael A. Cummings
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.This week we discussed cognitive distortions with Adam Borechy. Usually cognitive behavioral therapists deal with cognitive distortions by helping their clients identify habitual negative thoughts and and putting those thoughts on trial. We don’t have to accept every thought that passes through our brains as truth. When we have distressing thoughts, it can be helpful to consider if we might be telling ourselves the full truth about a situation.We refer to common cognitive distortions—depression, anxiety, feelings of failure, negative thoughts when interacting with people, social anxiety—and we see how they are applying to our thought process.For a PDF of the cognitive distortions and a 8 days journal task towards better identifying them in your life, please see my resource page. In this 8 day journey you will better identify your own troubling thoughts and move towards gratitude.All or nothing thinking: things are black and white, completely without shades of gray. For example you may think, “If I am not perfect, I should not try at all, because then I would fail completely.” Or you might think, “My significant other is completely evil.” And then the next day, “My significant other is perfect.” Overgeneralization: generalizations are made without context, experience or evidence. “I am always alone.” Or “Everyone hates me.” “I never win.” Always? Never? Everyone? It happens absolutely all the time, without exceptions? In the moment, it can feel like that, but those statements are actually rarely true. Speaking truth to yourself in this case might look like: I am sometimes alone, several people are upset at me, I win sometimes, even if I didn’t this time.Mental Filter: focusing on the negative rather than the whole picture. After receiving multiple positive statements and one negative statement, all you focus on is the negative statement. Disqualifying the positive: When you do something good like get a compliment or award, you instantly find ways to make less of it! For example, if someone says, “You are looking good today,” but instantly you assume that person is giving you a false compliment. Jumping to conclusions (without evidence): reaching conclusions (usually negative) without little evidence.Mind reading: assuming you know what the person is thinking about you. Connection occurs from accurately knowing another, and with mindreading you blind yourself without evidence.Fortune telling: predicting negative things in the future. For example you think “I am going to fail this test even if I study,” so you don’t try, don’t study, and don’t even show up.Magnification or Minimization: you make some weakness of yours much larger than it is or a strength much less than it really is. For example you see your friends as beautiful whereas you see your own beauty as very average.Magnification of self and minimization of others (narcissism)Emotional Reasoning: believe that your feelings reflect reality. For example, “I feel stupid, therefore I am.” or “I feel fearful of flying in planes therefore they must be dangerous,” or “I feel ugly therefore I am ugly despite what others tell me.” Shoulding: a thing that you believe you should or should not do, often created to try to maintain an image of yourself which is more in line with social pressures. For example, “I should be perfect,” “I should never cry,” “I should always win,” “I should be able to do this on the first try.”Personalization: blaming oneself for a bad event without looking at external factors that contributed to the bad event. Attributing personal responsibility to things that you have no control over, or when you do not see all the things that caused something. For example, a friend is upset so you think it is something you caused or are responsible for. Error Messages: thoughts that are like obsessive compulsive disorder due to having thoughts that are repetitive, intrusive and not meaningful.
sign up for an annual subscription to receive CME credit for this activity and more! Learn more Here.In this first episode I talk about my approach to seeing a new patient for the first time. I go over the importance of empathy and psychological safety in the first interview. I then go into how to do some of the components of a psychiatric history. I go into details on what parts are important and why. Please see my resource page for a full PDF of my notes and also the PDF of the document I give to patients prior to their first appointment with me.