Dr. Rob Geist Pinfold and Dr. Vera Michlin-Shapir discuss the recent rise in covert action worldwide, focusing on the alleged Russian poisoning of Sergei Skripal in the United Kingdom. Together, they define the concept of covert action, consider several high profile case studies from history and contemporary events, and note the modern evolution of covert action, particularly in cyberspace. “Classic” examples of covert action, such as the Skripal case, are contrasted with other recent instances that involved advanced technology, such as Stuxnet and the alleged Russian interference in the 2015 US presidential election. This podcast addresses a variety of questions related to covert action, such as: what does covert action hope to achieve? How does it differ from more conventional acts? Finally, what can liberal, democratic governments do to stop the spread of “fake news” and clandestine propaganda?