EpisodesReviewsCharts
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November 6, 2018
Episode 125: Kratomic Explosion
Kratom doesn't sound like your typical herbal supplement, but it does come with all the issues common to the supplement industry. Namely, it hasn't withstood the test of clinical trials to demonstrate safety and efficacy.  And that causes problems.  Problems like not knowing how much of the ingredient is in the supplement, or how much of other ingredients for that matter. Or wht kind of side effects might be evident if it were subjected to randomized placebo-controlled trials.  But another problem is that it might actually offer a solution to a very big problem—opioid addiction But we don't know if it does because guess what? It hasn't been studied.  This week, 2 Docs Talk about Kratom and why the regulatory requirements (or absence thereof) on the supplement industry might be causing us to miss out on some real benefits.
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8 min
October 30, 2018
Episode 124: Treating Opioid Addiction
With our apologies to and appreciation of Frances McDormand. The opioid crisis is showing no signs of tapering off any time soon, so today, 2 Docs Talk about the cornerstone of opioid addiction treatment - medication assisted therapy or MAT. We also (because we can't resist) talk about the irony of the very company who triggered the epidemic with their deceitful marketing practices now profiting from selling the treatment for that very problem. Resources: Previously, we disucssed the opioid epidemic in episode 12 - you can find it right here.
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15 min
October 23, 2018
Episode 123: Fall 2018 Updates
After a hiatus that lasted much longer than planned, we are back with our fall 2018 season of 2 Docs Talk, with look back on previous topic and an update on what's been going on since we first discussed them. We'll talk about the following episodes: Hormone Supplementation and Menopause Right to Try Legislation The Flu, the Flu Shot and the Future Cervical Cancer and the HPV Vaccine Medicaid Expansion The Mumps   Other resources for this episode can be found here: JAMA article on racial differences in vasomotor symptoms  Info on HPV vaccine expanded recommendations Mumps booster information
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13 min
March 19, 2018
Episode 122: Does everyone get healthcare in the U.S. when they really need it? (Rebroadcast)
If you've had many conversations about healthcare reform, it is likely you've heard some variation on this theme:  "Hospitals have to provide care for people who show up. So everyone can get healthcare when they need it. So when people say that can't get healthcare, that isn't true." Is there any merit to that argument? Spoiler: NO. But if you want to hear more about where that idea comes from, take a listen.  Resources: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EMTALA/ http://www.kff.org/medicaid/state-indicator/medicaid-income-eligibility-limits-for-parents/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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10 min
March 12, 2018
Episode 121: Is There a Bright Side to SSRIs?
If you aren't taking an SSRI yourself, there it's almost certain you know someone who does. Selective Serotoning Reuptake Inhibitors are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs out there. Is their widespread use earned on the basis of good evidence? It's not clear - let's take a look. References: Genetic and clinical predictors of sexual dysfunction in citalopram-treated depressed patients. Perlis RH, Laje G, Smoller JW, Fava M, Rush AJ, McMahon FJ Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34(7):1819. Epub 2009 Mar 18.  Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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13 min
March 5, 2018
Episode 120: Who do Right to Try Laws Really Help?
Right to Try laws have come about as a response to cumbersome paperwork required to access the FDA's compassionate use program. However, the FDA has lessened the paperwork required for terminally ill patients to access investigational drugs.  So is Right to Try a meaningful movement, or is it simply one piece of an overaraching ideology. Today, 2 Docs Talk about Right to Try laws and who they help. Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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10 min
February 26, 2018
Episode 119: Is Alchohol Good for Your Health
For decades, much has been made of the healthvbenefits of drinking alcohol. And those benefits are real. But, what exactly are the benefits, and how do they stack up against the risks associated with alcohol?  Today, 2 Docs Talk about the ways alcohol and help and harm your health, and we offer some of our opinions, too.  Resources: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/alcohol-full-story/ https://www.cdc.gov/features/costsofdrinking/index.html https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.pdf Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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13 min
February 19, 2018
Episode 118: Scratching the Surface of Varicella
If you are of a certain age, you remember a time when pretty much every kid got chicken pox. But those days are behind us as most of our children are vaccinated agains varicella, the virus that causes chicken pox. But for us old folks, shingles is the still around to remind of the old days when we still got chicken pox.  Today 2 docs talk about the effect of the varicella vaccine, the problem with shingles, and what you can do about it.   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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9 min
February 12, 2018
Episode 117: Glioblastoma Multiforme - What would Jimmy V Do?
Senator McCain has a malignant brain tumor called a Glioblastoma Multiforme, or glioblastoma or GBM for short. Glioblastomas are one of a class of brain tumors called Gliomas. Gliomas can be low grade which are considered pre-malginant or pre-cancerous or they can be high grade malignancies such as GBMs.   Today 2 Docs Talk about Glioblastoma Multiforme, and the difficulties associated with treating - or not treating - the tumor.
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11 min
February 5, 2018
Episode 116: The Where, What and Why of Exercise
We all know that exercise is beneficial for our health. But how much  - how long - what type? Understanding what offers the best outcomes is tricky because it's difficult to conduct rigorous research with long term endpoints such as reduction of disease and death.  Today 2 Docs Talk about some interesting studies on exercise and what they reveal about the benefits of physical activity.  Resources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844730 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844882 https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/mets-activity-table/ http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343%2814%2900138-7/abstract https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-9-89 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18332184 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953612003565 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2852580/#R12 http://www.aacr.org/Newsroom/Pages/News-Release-Detail.aspx?ItemID=580#.Wlt9eSOZM_W Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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19 min
January 29, 2018
Episode 115: Pressure to Treat Hypertension
The normally staid world of hypertension was a bit controversial in 2017, so this week 2 Docs Talk about the recent recommendations — and their accompanying controversies — for treating high blood pressure.  Resources: Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly (SHEP) Study Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) blood pressure trial. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) JNC 8 blood pressure treatment guidelines
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14 min
January 22, 2018
Episode 114: Supplemental Ethics?
Does your doctor sell dietary supplements? Have you considered the ethics of such an arrangement? The American Medical Association has, and they think it's a bad idea. 2 Docs Talk about the ethics of physicians profiting from supplement sales. Resources: About DSHEA 1994 ER visits due to supplements Study showing supplement reduces LDL AMA Ethics Statements on Supplement Sales Pharmceutical marketing and prescribing habits  
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12 min
January 15, 2018
Episode 113: Influenza 2017-18 Update
This has been a particularly bad year for the flu. More people are getting sicker than in most years. And the vaccine is not working well.  In this episode, 2 Docs Talk about why the influenza virus circulating this year is causing so many problems. Beware there is a little bit of basic science involved. But not too much. Resources:  Our information is from the Centers for Disease Control: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/current.htm Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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11 min
January 8, 2018
Episode 112: Drug Pricing (Rebroadcast)
If you’ve paid any attention to the news over the past year or so, you’ve likely seen stories of greedy capitalists gouging the vulnerable by hiking up the prices of their life-saving drugs. But are the prices hikes all that bad? Yes. Yes, they are. And we talk about that to day on 2 Docs Talk. Resources: JAMA on Drug Pricing Our episode on Hep C Our episode on Alzheimers Our episode on Pricing Transparency Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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15 min
January 1, 2018
Episode 111: Drug Pricing (Rebroadcast)
If you’ve paid any attention to the news over the past year or so, you’ve likely seen stories of greedy capitalists gouging the vulnerable by hiking up the prices of their life-saving drugs. But are the prices hikes all that bad? Yes. Yes, they are. And we talk about that to day on 2 Docs Talk. Resources: JAMA on Drug Pricing Our episode on Hep C Our episode on Alzheimers Our episode on Pricing Transparency Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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15 min
December 25, 2017
Episode 110: The Prostate (Rebroadcast)
You’d think that something like screening for prostate cancer would be free of controversy, but that just isn’t the case. The benefits and risks of screening have been hotly debated by different medical organizations over the years. Today, 2 Docs Talk about how prostate screening and the various issues surrounding it. This is a topic every man should discuss with his physicians, and we hope this hepls you know what questions to ask when you do. Resources: Weiner AB, Matulewicz RS, Eggener SE, Schaeffer EM. Increasing incidence of metastatic prostate cancer in the United States (2004-2013). Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2016 Jul 19.] AU Tacklind J, Macdonald R, Rutks I, Stanke JU, Wilt TJ. TI Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. SO Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD001423. https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/hp/prostate-screening-pdq   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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17 min
December 18, 2017
Episode 109: Healthcare Pricing Transparency (Rebroadcast)
If you’ve ever tried to figure out the price of a medical procedure, you know it’s not that easy. In fact, research shows that complete pricing for medical procedures is unavailable when requested over one-third of the time. As healthcare deductibles rise and indidviduals are affected more and directly by these costs, the issue of pricing transparency is growing. In this episode we talk about the problem posed by opaque medical pricing practices. We also dig into two innovative practice models that solve this transparency problem, as well as a few other issues in the delivery of healthcare and medicine. Resources: Surgery Center of Oklahoma Turntable Health Iora Health JAMA: Availability of Consumer Prices from US Hospitals for a Common Surgical Procedure   Listen on iTunes Listen on Libsyn  
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12 min
December 11, 2017
Episode 108: Vaccines (Rebroadcast)
Vaccines are both one of the most widely used and most widely misunderstood preventive medical treatments available. People have concerns about autism, efficacy, the promotion of unhealthy behaviors. We dig into the evidence on some of those topics, as well as take a look at the effectiveness of vaccines against some of the scariest disease of our time – including cancer.   NEJM study on vaccines and autism Lancet study on vaccines and autism Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality an ebook by the Institute of Medicine that states, “The evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between MMR vaccine and autism.” About Cancer vaccines 2014-2015 Flu vaccine info – why it was less effective, but did reduce disease severity Information on current research into an ebola vaccine     Check out this episode! Subscribe in iTunes
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16 min
November 27, 2017
Episode 107: Testosterone Trending (Rebroadcast)
All you have to do is take a quick drive around town to see that low testosterone clinics are all the rage. A little math will tell you why. Males make up around 50 percent of the population, and their testosterone declines, naturally, at a rate of 1 percent per year after age 30. If that decline merits treatment, it’s no wonder those clinics are everywhere. But, does it merit treatment? Is testosterone replacement safe? Is it even effective? We dig into those questions on this episode of 2 Docs Talk. Resources JAMA: Effects of Testosterone on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Testosterone Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Testosterone Increases Cardiovascular Risk FDA Drug Safety Communication on Testosterone Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher  
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9 min
November 20, 2017
Episode 106: Longevity (Rebroadcast)
In healthcare, the holy graille seems to be longevity. We look at whether a treatment increases lifespan and use that as a barometer for it's value.  But should that be the yardstick we use? Or would we be better off with a more subjective measure of improving quality of life, even if that means sacrificing some of the quantity. Today, 2 Docs Talk about this question propose some things to consider as you consider your approach to aging and healthcare.   Resources: Colonoscopy study in the Annals of Internal Medicine  Research on lifespan in Nature The Austad/Olshansky Wager  
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11 min
November 13, 2017
Episode 105: Are GMO's or Frankenfood? (Rebroadcast)
One of the latest technological advances in food production is the introduction of GMOs, or genetically modified organisms, to the food supply. They have the potential to offer many benefits including increased productivity, pest and herbicide resistance, longer shelf life, and the list goes on. But many are concerned that this relatively new technology isn’t safe – for health, the environment or the economy. We dig into the evidence surrounding GMOs in this episode. We might even share an opinion or two on whether the crops are just GMOs or Frankenfood. Resources: Primer on the retracted study that indicated GMOs caused tumors How GMOs are tested for safety Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher  
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10 min
November 6, 2017
Episode 104: What to do About Chronic Back Pain (Rebroadcast)
Back pain is second only to cancer as a cause of long term disability. This health problem is damaging to individuals and costly to society. And we don’t have much in our arsenal that is effective at treating it. This week, we discuss the difference between acute and chronic back pain with regard to treatment and outcomes. We also discuss the role of surgery, medications, alternative therapies, and some interesting new research on what helps resolve chronic back pain. Resources: Research on efficacy of epidural steroid injections for back pain Trends in spinal fusion surgery American College of Physicians Guidelines for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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13 min
October 30, 2017
Episode 103: Screening Mammography (Rebroadcast)
Screening mammography is widely used throughout the U.S. and is thought of as a great success in the prevention of breast cancer deaths. But what does the evidence say? Are we getting what we are paying for with mammography, or simply shouldering the extra cost of false positives and overdiagnosis? We examine these issues and more on this episode of 2 Docs Talk. References: What does the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) do? USPSTF current (2009) breast cancer screening recs  USPSTF proposed (2015) breast cancer screening recs American Cancer Society updated breast cancer screening recs American College of Obstetricians and Radiologists breast cancer screening recs American College of Radiology breast cancer screening recs Switzerland’s stance on screening mammography Cost of false positive mammograms BMJ study that showed no benefit from screening mammography performed in 1980’s JAMA Oncology study on ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) An excellent (and long!) discussion of overdiagnosis and screening mammography Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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19 min
October 23, 2017
Episode 102: Physician Burnout (Rebroadcast)
Physician burnout is a big issue in the medical community. According the the Medscape Lifestyle Report 2017, over half of physicians report burnout. But physician burnout isn’t just a problem for physicians. It is a problem for patients, for other medical staff, and for the health care economy. Today we dig into the causes of physician burnout and how it can be addressed. Here’s a hint: It doesn’t involve meditation or counseling. Resources: Medscape Lifestyle Report 2017 2 Docs Talk About Pricing Transparency 2 Docs Talk About Medicare for All 2 Docs Talk About Drug Pricing Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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17 min
October 16, 2017
Episode 101: Direct to Consumer Marketing (Rebroadcast)
If you watch any tv at all, it’s likely you’ve seen a drug ad. These ads generally show seemingly healthy people living normal lives, the message being the drug did this for them. But are the drug ads telling the whole story? And should they even be advertising directly to consumers to begin with? We discuss this issue on today’s episode.   Resources: Nivolumab Research from New England Journal of Medicine What the FDA has to say about drug ads Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
October 9, 2017
Episode 100: Depression and Suicide (Rebroadcast)
With the recent release of the Netflix series, 13 Reasons Why, depression and suicide have been getting a lot of press time. In this episode, we talk about depression, what it is, how it is treated and what’s on the horizon for this far too common disorder. We also talk a bit about the Netflix series and the problem of suicide. Take a listen and see what you think. If you think you may be depressed please seek help from a trusted healthcare provider. And if you are contemplating suicide, there is help for you – please contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 (TALK). Someone will answer your call and help you find the resources you need to deal with your depression. Brains of people with depression are different Brain imaging reveals different types of depression Summary of effectiveness of SSRIs and other antidepressant medications   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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17 min
October 2, 2017
Episode 99: Cervical Cancer and the HPV Vaccine
Historically, cervical cancer has been one of the major killers of young women. But since the advent of the pap smear, death from the disease has dropped dramatically. However, treatment of lesions identified on pap smear can lead to significant issues including infertility. And in other parts of the world where screenign is not easily accessed, cervical cancer remains a significant cause of death for women in the prime of life. As with any disease, prevention is better than treatment, and this is where the HPV vaccine comes into play. Known mainly by its trade name, Gardasil, the vaccine has been on the market for over a decade. That’s long enough to provide data to draw reasonable conclusions about its safety and efficacy. Resources: Prevalence of HPV after introduction of vaccine Population-Based Incidence Rates of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Era   Safety Resources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21907257 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23027469 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24108159 http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1886177 https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/pdf/data-summary-hpv-gardasil-vaccine-is-safe.pdf   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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17 min
September 25, 2017
Episode 98: Medical Errors (Rebroadcast)
A BMJ report earlier this year declared that 1 in 3 hospital deaths were the result of medical errors. A flurry of headlines about the dangers of hospitals soon followed. Just what is a medical error? What are the dangers of being in a hospital? And what can we do about it? We talk about these questions in today's episode.  Resources: BMJ on medical error KATZ scale To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System Hospital at Home Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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15 min
September 18, 2017
Episode 97: The Flu, the Flu Shot, and the Future
Thousands of people die each year from influenza. The CDC recommends that almost all people (with a few rare exceptions) receive the flu vaccine every year. But the disease and the vaccine are poorly understood. In this episode, we discuss the flu, its treatment and its prevention. Resources: Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing outpatient, inpatient, and severe cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza Oseltamivir treatment for influenza in adults: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
September 11, 2017
Episode 96: Hospice Care (Rebroadcast)
Kendall and Amy are in agreement that hospice care is an important, compassionate aspect of healthcare that humanizes what can be a very clinical, impersonal process. We've both experience with hospice - personally and professionally.  Sadly, like most aspects of healthcare, the potential for profit has introduced some ugly practices into what should be focused solely on the needs of dying patients and their families. Today, Kendall and Amy talk about the good and the bad of hospice as it exists in 2017. Resources: Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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13 min
September 4, 2017
Episode 95: Are We Overscreening for Thyroid Disease
Most people probably know someone who has had thyroid disease of some sort, most commonly hypothyroidism - the term low thyroid hormone. But there has been a significant rise in diagnosed thyroid disease in the past couple of decades due to screening. These diagnoses include problems with thyroid hormone as well as thyroid cancers. It's easy to get excited about diagnosing more disease - you catch it earlier and help people prevent the consequences of the disease. Or do you? Today we are going to talk about screening asymptomatic patients for thyroid disease. We're also going to address that slipppery category of "subclinical" thyroid disease.  Resources British Medical Journal on Increased Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer in Korea
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12 min
August 28, 2017
Episode 94: Medicaid, Medicaid Expansion and the Uninsured
Medicaid is the subject of a lot of talk in today's political environment. Sadly much of what is said isn't based in fact, or it focuses on parts of the program that represent a tiny portion of its cost.  Today, 2 Docs Talk about Medicaid, who it serves, and how it was affected (or, rather, supposed to be affected) by the Affordable Care Act.
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12 min
August 21, 2017
Episode 93: Ovarian Cysts
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14 min
August 14, 2017
Episode 92: End Stage Renal Disease
End stage renal disease, ESRD, is a growing problem in the U.S. When Medicare began covering renal dialysis, there were on 16,000 patient who required that type of care. Today that number exceeds 650,000 and continues to grow. Today, 2 Docs Talk about what causes end stage renal disease, how can it be treated, and, most importantly, how can it be prevented.    Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
August 7, 2017
Episode 91: EMTALA
If you've had many conversations about healthcare reform, it is likely you've heard some variation on this theme:  "Hospitals have to provide care for people who show up. So everyone can get healthcare when they need it. So when people say that can't get healthcare, that isn't true." Is there any merit to that argument? Spoiler: NO. But if you want to hear more about where that idea comes from, take a listen.  Resources: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EMTALA/ http://www.kff.org/medicaid/state-indicator/medicaid-income-eligibility-limits-for-parents/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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10 min
July 31, 2017
Episode 90: Cervical Cancer Screening
The pap smear has been one of the greatest public health wins of the past century. But the pap test may end up being pushed aside by HPV screening. Today, 2 Docs Talk about Pap smears, HPV screening, the current recommendations for cervical cancer screening, and the research that may push us to shifting away from the pap smear to the HPV test.
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13 min
July 24, 2017
Episode 89: The Ethics of New Drug Approvals (Rebroadcast)
The process of drug approval is long and expensive. To complicate matters, pharmaceutical companies, patients, an the FDA are all invested in the process, for different reasons – and they aren’t always the same. Today we discuss the story of how a new drug came to market and the unusual circumstances around its approval.  Resources: FDA grants accelerated approval to first drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy CDC on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Right to Try Compassionate Use Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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12 min
July 17, 2017
Episode 88: The Past, Present and Future (we hope) of Contraception (Rebroadcast)
If there is a hot button issue in politics these days, it's abortion. But abortion is the result of a long line of issues that are being inadequately addressed in this country. Today we take a look at contraception - what it is, how it works, its history and its future.  We also offer a look at an innovative program that has the potential to help both pro-choice and pro-life groups happy.    Resources: Details on various types of birth control The Choice Project Use of LARCs in Colorado Slang for using a condom (adult humor - you've been warned)   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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16 min
July 10, 2017
Episode 87: Gun Violence is a Public Health Issue (Rebroadcast)
As we enter primary season for this election year, gun violence and control is a hot topic. However, much of the discussion lives in one of two extremes, and little of it is based on actual evidence.  With over 30,000 gun deaths each year, and over 20,000 of those death from suicide, the reality is that gun violence is a public health issue. This means we need to treat this issue from the point of view of the medical evidence.  Today we look at the scope of the problem, what has and hasn't worked, and some thougths about what lies ahead.  Resources: CDC All Injuries Statistics CDC Accidental Death Statistics CDC Homicide and Assault Statistics CDC Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Statistics CDC Depression Statistics Discussion of Australia's Gun Laws in the New York Times Discussion of Missouri's Gun Laws in the New York Times Survey of Defensive Gun Use Cited Frequently by NRA  Methodological issues with Defensive Gun Use Survey
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15 min
July 3, 2017
Episode 86: Concussions (Rebroadcast)
Concussions are not uncommon in contact sports such as football, soccer and basketball.  But we aren't trying to scare or shock anyone. On today's podcast we'd like to educate and inform so that parents and players can make decisions that aren't based on fear and misinformation. We'll cover concussions return-to-play policies second impact syndrome post-concussive syndrome chronic traumatic encephalopathy Take a listen and let us know what you think. Article referenced in podcast: McKinney ISD Concussion Protocol
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20 min
June 26, 2017
Episode 85: Medical Marijuana (Rebroadcast)
As the the political winds shift in favor of legalizing medical marijuana, it's important to consider the evidence that supports it.  But the 23 states that have legalized it and the FDA don't agree on when marijuana helps and when it doesn't. In this episode, we take a look at the evidence supporting the move toward legalizing the use of marijuana and cannabinoids for medical purposes.   References from the show: Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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14 min
June 19, 2017
Episode 84: Choosing Wisely (Rebroadcast)
We’ve got a lot of questions marks ahead of us this year when it comes to healthcare. What will happen with the Affordable Care Act, Medicare, Medicaid, Planned Parenthood, etc. etc. The future of healthcare under the new administration is a big unknown. But one thing we do know - healthcare costs far too much. One of the key contributors to these costs is the over $200 billion per year in unnecessary medical care.  In today's episode, we dig in to the reasons for these costs, and more importantly, we talk about the things we can do as healthcare consumers to reduce unnecessary medical care in our own lives.  Resources: Unnecessary Medical Costs Low Value Care in Medicine Unnecessary Tests and Treatments Freakonomics Radio: Bad Medicine Choosing Wisely   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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14 min
June 12, 2017
Episode 83: Parkinson Disease
Parkinson Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the U.S. and it appears to be increasing in prevalence. So what is Parkinson Disease, what causes it and what can we do about it? 2 Docs Talk about it today. Resources: JAMA Neurology Increasing Incidence of Parkinson Disease Metformin and Parkinson Disease Braak Hypothesis Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
June 5, 2017
Episode 82: Headline Round Up
Sometimes there are news items that just need to be discussed, but they don't really generate enough material for a podcast of their own. Today we are talking about those headlines. Resources: Stroke Study: Diet Soda, Stroke, and Dementia Association of Hormonal Contraception with Depression Tom Price on Preventive Services Mandate New York Times on the Contraception Mandate CNN Report on Minnesota Measles Outbreak Stat Review of Vaxxed California Immunization Rates After SB277 Handgun Acquisition After Mass Shootings Bystander CPR and Outcomes After Cardiac Arrest Learn CPR Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
May 29, 2017
Episode 81: Lyme Disease
Lyme Disease has been a known tickborne infectious disease since the early 80s. Treatment for Lyme Disease is surprisingly straightforward, but you would never guess that from the controversy surrouding the infection. Part of the problem stems from "Chronic Lyme Disease," which is now more appropriately knwon as Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, to indicate that the infection is no longer present in these patients. There is some explanation for their symtoms other than persisttent bacteremia. Todayw e talk about all this, and dig into a little of the history and the controversy surroudning Lyme Disease. Resources: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1505425 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891552015000203 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra072023#t=article http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200107123450202#t=abstract https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18452806 Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!    
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11 min
May 22, 2017
Episode 80: Depression
With the recent release of the Netflix series, 13 Reasons Why, depression and suicide have been getting a lot of press time. In this episode, we talk about depression, what it is, how it is treated and what's on the horizon for this far too common disorder.  We also talk a bit about the Netflix series and the problem of suicide. Take a listen and see what you think. If you think you may be depressed please seek help from a trusted healthcare provider. And if you are contemplating suicide, there is help for you - please contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 (TALK). Someone will answer your call and help you find the resources you need to deal with your depression.  RESOURCES: Brains of people with depression are different Brain imaging reveals different types of depression Summary of effectiveness of SSRIs and other antidepressant medications Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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17 min
May 15, 2017
Episode 79: The Mumps
So spring breakers on South Padre Island in Texas are coming down with the mumps. Since the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine was introduced in 1967, we've stopped expecting these outbreaks.  But recent increases in those who choose to have their children forego vaccines has led to a loss of herd immunity and an increase in these outbreaks. To further complicate the issue, it seems that immunity wanes with time, which is why many college students (hello spring break!) find themselves falling ill eight to ten years after their last booster at age 12 to 15.  Resources: Mumps at South Padre Learn more about the Mumps and the Mumps vaccine from the CDC Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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11 min
May 8, 2017
Episode 78: What Evidence Can You Trust?
If you've ever felt like you had a handle on the evidence about a certain medical topic only to read a headline telling you science now says the opposite, you aren't alone.  But science isn't about headlines. It's about evaluating the evidence to decide what's real, and it doesn't always conform to what we want. But that doesn't stop the media, (and maybe some journals), from selectively reporting the research that will generate the most buzz. Today we talk about this issue and ideas that are being discussed to help be sure all the evidence, including the unremarkable evidence, is adequately reported. Resources: Nurse's Health Study Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Heart Disease Risk Results-Blind Study PLOS on Data 2 Docs Talk about Hormone Replacement Therapy 2 Docs Talk about Supplements Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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10 min
May 1, 2017
Episode 77: USPSTF Evidence
Each year, under Obamacare rules, the USPSTF is required to issue a report on evidence gaps. These are areas of preventive medicine that they decide we are lacking sufficient evidence to determine if the harms outweight the risk. This week, we take a look at the primary areas of evidence shortfall. If you are wondering about a screening test, take a listen to see if it made the list.   Resources: Sixth Annual Report to Congress on High Priority Evidence Gaps 2 Docs Talk about Smoking Cessation 2 Docs Talk about dietary supplements 2 Docs Talk about skin cancer prevention
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17 min
April 24, 2017
Episode 76: Do You Want a Long Lifespan? Or a Long Healthspan?
In healthcare, the holy graille seems to be longevity. We look at whether a treatment increases lifespan and use that as a barometer for it's value.  But should that be the yardstick we use? Or would we be better off with a more subjective measure of improving quality of life, even if that means sacrificing some of the quantity. Today, 2 Docs Talk about this question propose some things to consider as you consider your approach to aging and healthcare.   Resources: Colonoscopy study in the Annals of Internal Medicine  Research on lifespan in Nature The Austad/Olshansky Wager
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11 min
April 17, 2017
Episode 75: Are We Overscreening for Thyroid Disease
Most people probably know someone who has had thyroid disease of some sort, most commonly hypothyroidism - the term low thyroid hormone. But there has been a significant rise in diagnosed thyroid disease in the past couple of decades due to screening. These diagnoses include problems with thyroid hormone as well as thyroid cancers. It's easy to get excited about diagnosing more disease - you catch it earlier and help people prevent the consequences of the disease. Or do you? Today we are going to talk about screening asymptomatic patients for thyroid disease. We're also going to address that slipppery category of "subclinical" thyroid disease.  Resources British Medical Journal on Increased Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer in Korea
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12 min
April 10, 2017
Episode 74: The Evidence on GERD
GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease is the very common disorder where acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus. It results in that all too common problem we call heartburn, along with a slew of other symptoms. Today we take a look at GERD, the commonly recommended remedies, and the one thing the evidence shows really works to get rid of the burn. Resources Risk of dementia in elderly patients with the use of proton pump inhibitors. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitors With Risk of Dementia: A Pharmacoepidemiological Claims Data Analysis. Acupuncture for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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13 min
April 3, 2017
Episode 73: Hospice
Kendall and Amy are in agreement that hospice care is an important, compassionate aspect of healthcare that humanizes what can be a very clinical, impersonal process. We've both experience with hospice - personally and professionally.  Sadly, like most aspects of healthcare, the potential for profit has introduced some ugly practices into what should be focused solely on the needs of dying patients and their families. Today, Kendall and Amy talk about the good and the bad of hospice as it exists in 2017. Resources:   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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13 min
March 27, 2017
Episode 72: Death Panels
Ever since Sarah Palin famously accused Obamacare of promoting death panels, the idea remains a fixture for some politicians to fall back on to impugn the healhcare law.  But were death panels ever a part of the original healthcare law? And more importantly, how should patients and their physicians be approaching the topic of death, if at all? Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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11 min
March 20, 2017
Episode 71: Our Thoughts on Trumpcare, Part 2
In this follow up episode to last week, we dig in to how the American Healthcare Act, aka Trumpcare, will affect Medicaid, and who will benefit from all the tax breaks.  We recorded this episode before the Congressional Budget Office came out with their evaluation of the plan. We weren't too far off, if anything we may have been generous with Trumpcare. We've linked the CBO report in the resources below in case you want to check it out for yourself. Also, I mistakenly credited the Vox article to Ezra Klein, but it was Sarah Kliff who wrote the excellent summary of the AHCA. It's also linked below. Resources: Health Affairs Blog on AHCA Kaiser’s side-by-side comparison of Obamacare and AHCA Obamacare Essential Healht Benefits Vox Article by Sarah Kliff Summary of Congressional Budget Office Report Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
March 13, 2017
Episode 70: Our Thoughts on Trumpcare, Part 1
UPDATE: Since the episode aired (like the very next day) the Congressional Budget Office came out with their assessment of the American Healthcare Act. It was not positive. Stay tuned to the second part of this episode coming out on Monday, March 20, where we will discuss what they had to say. _________________ Over the past week, we've finally gotten to take a look at the elusive Republican healthcare plan, the proposed replacement for Obamacare. In this episode we talk about the faults opponent found with Obamacare, and how the proposed plan, which we call Trumpcare, attempts to address those issues. This is the first installment of a two-part episode on Trumpcare, so be sure to listen this week and next week to get our full analysis. Resources: Health Affairs Blog on AHCA Kaiser's side-by-side comparison of Obamacare and AHCA Obamacare Essential Healht Benefits Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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14 min
March 6, 2017
Episode 69: Hepatitis C (Rebroadcast)
Hepatitis C infection is on the rise in recent years. The growing opioid epidemic has multiplied the problem, as the primary means of spread is IV drug use.  Surprisingly only 35 percent of those infected received treatment even though excellent treatment available is for this devastating disease. Not surprisingly, drug costs are a major factor in this issue. Join us as we discuss the issue of Hep C and what can be done about it. Resources: American Journal of Managed Care Special Issue on Hepatitis C Virus Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven't already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
February 27, 2017
Episode 68: Pediculosis Rebroadcast
  Lice are an issue that many parents of elementary students have to deal with, often more than once. In this episode we discuss the three different types of lice - body lice, pubic lice, and head lice - how to get them, the health threats associated with them, and what works to get rid of them.  Resources: The CDC on head lice treatment An Interesting Paper if You Want to Get Totally Geeky on Lice Dr. Pearlman's Site on the Cetaphil Treatment and Lice   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven't already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
February 20, 2017
Episode 67: The 3 Main Reasons for Physician Burnout
Physician burnout is a big issue in the medical community. According the the Medscape Lifestyle Report 2017, over half of physicians report burnout. But physician burnout isn't just a problem for physicians. It is a problem for patients, for other medical staff, and for the health care economy.  Today we dig into the causes of physician burnout and how it can be addressed. Here's a hint: It doesn't involve meditation or counseling. Resources: Medscape Lifestyle Report 2017 2 Docs Talk About Pricing Transparency 2 Docs Talk About Medicare for All 2 Docs Talk About Drug Pricing Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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17 min
February 13, 2017
Episode 66: What's New With Diabetes
Diabetes is an old disease that hasn't had a many new solutions in a long time. In this episode we look at what Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are, how they are treated, and some potential game changers for their treatment on the horizon. Resources: Diabetes Stats The exorbitant cost of diabetes ACP Guidelines for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Digital Start-up Trying to Help Low Income Diabetes Patients Research into the Utility of the BCG Vaccine for the Treatment of Diabetes   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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18 min
February 6, 2017
Episode 65: Cervical Cancer and the HPV Vaccine
Historically, cervical cancer has been one of the major killers of young women. But since the advent of the pap smear, death from the disease has dropped dramatically. However, treatment of lesions identified on pap smear can lead to significant issues including infertility. And in other parts of the world where screenign is not easily accessed, cervical cancer remains a significant cause of death for women in the prime of life. As with any disease, prevention is better than treatment, and this is where the HPV vaccine comes into play. Known mainly by its trade name, Gardasil, the vaccine has been on the market for over a decade. That's long enough to provide data to draw reasonable conclusions about its safety and efficacy. Resources: Prevalence of HPV after introduction of vaccine Population-Based Incidence Rates of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Era   Safety Resources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21907257 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23027469 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24108159 http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1886177 https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/pdf/data-summary-hpv-gardasil-vaccine-is-safe.pdf   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!    
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17 min
January 30, 2017
Episode 64: What's Up With Zika?
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14 min
January 23, 2017
Episode 63: The 21st Century Cures Act
The 21st Century Cures Act was passed by both bodies of Congress and signed into law by President Obama on December 7, 2016. The bill received overwhelming bipartisan support, with only a small number (of notable) exceptions. On the surface, the law sounds like a triumph for healthcare and medical research. But a closer look at funding for the act brings its staying power into question. The only provisions of the law that don't require further action to maintain funding benefit one lucky group.  Here's a hint: it's not patients.  So today, 2 Docs Talk about what the 21st Century Cures Act accomplishes and what it doesn't accomplish. Buckle up.  Resources: Legislative history and text of 21st Century Cures Act Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher
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11 min
January 16, 2017
Episode 62: Unnecessary Medical Services
We’ve got a lot of questions marks ahead of us this year when it comes to healthcare. What will happen with the Affordable Care Act, Medicare, Medicaid, Planned Parenthood, etc. etc. The future of healthcare under the new administration is a big unknown. But one thing we do know - healthcare costs far too much. One of the key contributors to these costs is the over $200 billion per year in unnecessary medical care.  In today's episode, we dig in to the reasons for these costs, and more importantly, we talk about the things we can do as healthcare consumers to reduce unnecessary medical care in our own lives.  Resources: Unnecessary Medical Costs Low Value Care in Medicine Unnecessary Tests and Treatments Freakonomics Radio: Bad Medicine Choosing Wisely   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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14 min
January 9, 2017
Episode 61: Artificial Sweeteners (Rebroadcast)
In a country (the U.S.) where people drink, on average, 44.7 gallons of soda per person, it's smart to think about what we are putting into our bodies.  Most of us have figured out that all that sugar is a bad idea, but what about sugar substitutes? Diet sodas make up a big portion of that 44.7 gallons. But is it really any better than plain old sugar? Resources: Generally Recognized as Safe San Antonio Heart Study Fueling the obesity epidemic: Artificially sweetened beverage use and long term weight gain Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Microbiota in Rats   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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11 min
January 2, 2017
Episode 60: Lessons from the Biggest Loser (Rebroadcast)
America has a weight problem. A full one third of us are classified as obese, and other third are obese. This has implications for individuals, families and society that cut across social and economic factors. We take a look at a handful of studies that take a look at the weight problem from a variety of angles. Metabolic rate, BMI, whole grain intake,physical inactivity, and more.   Resources: CDC Info on Obesity “The Biggest Loser” Study BMI study Whole Grain Study Exercise to Offset Sitting Cost of Physical Inactivity   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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21 min
December 26, 2016
Episode 59: Vaping (Rebroadcast)
These days you can buy e-Books  for your e-Reader and participate in e-Commerce. You can send your friends Evites, e-file your taxes, and meet the love of your life on eHarmony. So it’s really no surpise that e-Cigarettes have become as popular as they are. Hats off to whoever named them, since they are actually physical items that you can hold in your hands, unlike most e-products. The question, of course, is if there are any health advantages to e-Cigarettes. Do they really help you stop smoking? And, do they create their own set of health problems? That’s what we’re talking about this week.   Resources: E-Cigs and Poison Control Southern California Children’s Health Study USPSTF on Smoking Cessation Aphthous Ulcers and Nicotine Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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13 min
December 19, 2016
Episode 58: Are Hormones Beneficial in Menopause (Rebroadcast)
Over the last couple of decades, the conversation surrounding hormone replacement therapy and menopause has been confusing. Does it work? Is it safe? What about alternative therapies? it’s hard to sort out conflicting information coming from various sources. In this episode we discuss: The recent history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) HRT for symptom relief HRT, endometrial hyperplasia, and uterine cancer HRT and cardiovascular disease HRT and breast cancer Bioidentical hormones And more. Resources The Bitch is Back Study of Women’s Health Across the Naiton (SWAN) The Women’s Health Initiative Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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14 min
December 12, 2016
Episode 57: December Updates
  In this episode we take a look back at our first year of podcasting and some of the more interesting topics we've discussed. Remember medical marijuana? What about vaccines or telemedicine? There are new developments in these areas and more and we discuss these new developments and more. Also, if you hang on to the end, you'll hear one of the few times we disagree. We disagreed, we discussed, we still like eachother. Kendall didn't even tweet about what yuuuge loser Amy is. Podcasts we discuss in this episode: Vaccines Pricing Transparency Medical Marijuana Planned Parenthood Birth Control Back Pain Telemedicine   Resources MMR and SSPE California Drug Price Relief Act (It didn't pass) Voting Habits by Medical Specialty Reclassification of Marijuana CMS on Post-partum Reimbursements for LARCs Yoga for Back Pain FDA Approves Manufacture of Digital Stethescopes for Telemedicine by Tytocare   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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18 min
December 5, 2016
Episode 56: Heart Attacks
The media serves us a lot of news about some very flashy diseases. Sometimes is skews our perception of what the most serious threats to our health really are. But no matter what new danger the latest headlines proclaim, heart disease remains the number one cause of death in the United States. Often, those deaths are caused by heart attacks.  In today's episode, 2 Docs Talk about heart attacks, what they are, how they are treated, and how you should respond if you think you or someone near you is having one.  Resources: Prognosis after out of hospital cardiac arrest with and without automatic external defibrillation. A stem cell treatment for heart disease currently being pursued. Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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13 min
November 28, 2016
Episode 55: Laugher is the Best Medicine
With the very stressful election we've all just been through, we thought it might be a good idea to lighten things up and have a little fun this week. So we are taking a look at the medical news this week to find teh fun and lightness we are all needing right about now. If you want to learn more about the items we talked about today, the links are listed below. Why are we ticklish http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-tickling-rats-20161110-story.htm Flu risk and birth year http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/10/health/flu-risk-birth-year/ Cannabis gym http://hoodline.com/2016/11/world-s-first-cannabis-gym-to-debut-in-the-mission-this-spring Sugar-sweetened beverage tax passed in four cities http://theincidentaleconomist.com/wordpress/misapplication-of-the-berkeley-soda-tax-to-diet-drinks/ FIT for colorectal screening http://annals.org/aim/article/2571716/colorectal-cancer-screening-united-states-what-best-fit Roller coaster kidney stones http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2557373   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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10 min
November 21, 2016
Episode 54: What Does Planned Parenthood Actually Do? (Rebroadcast)
If you live anywhere but under a rock, you know that Planned Parenthood has been the center of controversy in recent months. In this episode, we discuss the history of the organization and its founder Margaret Sanger. Then we dig into Planned Parenthood as it exists today and the controversy surrounding it. The coverage of the controversy in the media is filled with innuendo and half-truths from both sides of the political spectrum. We wanted to know the facts, so we did a little searching. Since we recorded this episode, the courts in Houston did too, and found no evidence that they were profiting from the sale of fetal tissue or organs. But, what role does Planned Parenthood play in healthcare today? Do they provide needed services? What are those services? Is abortion their primary business? Should Medicaid funds cover their services? And finally, is there anything that can be done to curb the number of abortions performed today? (Hint: yes there is, and it has nothing to do with Roe v. Wade.) Resources: Where are Planned Parenthood Clinics Located? Texas Tribune Articles on Planned Parenthood Planned Parenthood Services by the Numbers CDC Abortion Surveillance Report - 2012 New England Journal of Medicine on Planned Parenthood Long Acting Reversible Contraception in Colorado The Choice Project - LARCs in Colorado  
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14 min
November 14, 2016
Episode 53: Healthcare in a Donald Trump Presidency
November 8, 2016 has come and gone and no matter what box you checked you are probably a little surprised by the outcome. Donald Trump will be the 45th POTUS.  This has the potential to shake things up in a lot of areas of American life, but we want to focus today on the healcare ramifications of a  Donald Trump presidency. What did he say he would do? Will he do it? And what will it look like if he does. We refer to a couple of our previous podcasts in this show and they are worth a listen as you evaluate the plans Donald Trump is offering up: Episode 10: What Does Planned Parenthood Actually Do? Episode 6: Pricing Transparents in Medicine and Healthcare
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12 min
November 7, 2016
Episode 52: The Ethic of New Drug Approvals
The process of drug approval is long and expensive. To complicate matters, pharmaceutical companies, patients, an the FDA are all invested in the process, for different reasons - and they aren't always the same. Today we discuss the story of how a new drug came to market and the unusual circumstances around its approval.  Resources: FDA grants accelerated approval to first drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy CDC on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Right to Try Compassionate Use Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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11 min
October 31, 2016
Episode 51: What's New With Acne Treatment?
It's one of those things that doesn't feel so big and important compared to other medical problems, but in reality, acne can be a difficult problem to deal with. For teens it can be a huge blow to already fragile self-confidence. It isn't a walk in the park for adults who find themselves with a break-out, either. So today, we are talking about what causes acne, what the science says about dietary approaches to reducing it, and what the most current treatments are.  Resources: Acne: A Disease of Western Civilization Prevalence, severity, and severity risk factors of acne in high school pupils: a community-based study. Our podcast on supplements Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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14 min
October 24, 2016
Episode 50: Why are Drug Prices Going Up?
If you've paid any attention to the news over the past year or so, you've likely seen stories of greedy capitalists gouging the vulnerable by hiking up the prices of their life-saving drugs. But are the prices hikes all that bad? Yes. Yes, they are. And we talk about that to day on 2 Docs Talk. Resources: JAMA on Drug Pricing Our episode on Hep C Our episode on Alzheimers Our episode on Pricing Transparency
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15 min
October 17, 2016
Episode 49: The Prostate
You'd think that something like screening for prostate cancer would be free of controversy, but that just isn't the case. The benefits and risks of screening have been hotly debated by different medical organizations over the years. Today, 2 Docs Talk about how prostate screening and the various issues surrounding it. This is a topic every man should discuss with his physicians, and we hope this hepls you know what questions to ask when you do. Resources: Weiner AB, Matulewicz RS, Eggener SE, Schaeffer EM. Increasing incidence of metastatic prostate cancer in the United States (2004-2013). Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2016 Jul 19.] AU Tacklind J, Macdonald R, Rutks I, Stanke JU, Wilt TJ. TI Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. SO Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD001423. https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/hp/prostate-screening-pdq
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17 min
October 10, 2016
Episode 48: Medical Errors
A BMJ report earlier this year declared that 1 in 3 hospital deaths were the result of medical errors. A flurry of headlines about the dangers of hospitals soon followed. Just what is a medical error? What are the dangers of being in a hospital? And what can we do about it? We talk about these questions in today's episode.  Resources: BMJ on medical error KATZ scale To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System Hospital at Home Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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15 min
October 3, 2016
Episode 47: Which Statistics Should You Trust?
If you've ever felt like you had a handle on the evidence about a certain medical topic only to read a headline telling you science now says the opposite, you aren't alone.  But science isn't about headlines. It's about evaluating the evidence to decide what's real, and it doesn't always conform to what we want. But that doesn't stop the media, (and maybe some journals), from selectively reporting the research that will generate the most buzz. Today we talk about this issue and ideas that are being discussed to help be sure all the evidence, including the unremarkable evidence, is adequately reported. Resources: Nurse's Health Study Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Heart Disease Risk Results-Blind Study PLOS on Data 2 Docs Talk about Hormone Replacement Therapy 2 Docs Talk about Supplements Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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9 min
September 26, 2016
Episode 46: E-Cigs
These days you can buy e-Books  for your e-Reader and participate in e-Commerce. You can send your friends Evites, e-file your taxes, and meet the love of your life on eHarmony.  So it's really no surpise that e-Cigarettes have become as popular as they are. Hats off to whoever named them, since they are actually physical items that you can hold in your hands, unlike most e-products. The question, of course, is if there are any health advantages to e-Cigarettes. Do they really help you stop smoking? And, do they create their own set of health problems?  That's what we're talking about this week.   Resources: E-Cigs and Poison Control Southern California Children's Health Study USPSTF on Smoking Cessation Aphthous Ulcers and Nicotine  
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12 min
September 19, 2016
Episode 45: Birth Control
If there is a hot button issue in politics these days, it's abortion. But abortion is the result of a long line of issues that are being inadequately addressed in this country. Today we take a look at contraception - what it is, how it works, its history and its future.  We also offer a look at an innovative program that has the potential to help both pro-choice and pro-life groups happy.    Resources: Details on various types of birth control The Choice Project Use of LARCs in Colorado Slang for using a condom (adult humor - you've been warned)   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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16 min
September 12, 2016
Episode 44: Artificial Sweeteners
In a country (the U.S.) where people drink, on average, 44.7 gallons of soda per person, it's smart to think about what we are putting into our bodies.  Most of us have figured out that all that sugar is a bad idea, but what about sugar substitutes? Diet sodas make up a big portion of that 44.7 gallons. But is it really any better than plain old sugar? Resources: Generally Recognized as Safe San Antonio Heart Study Fueling the obesity epidemic: Artificially sweetened beverage use and long term weight gain Artificial Sweeteners and Gut Microbiota in Rats   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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11 min
September 5, 2016
Episode 43: The Flu, the Shot, the Future
Thousands of people die each year from influenza. The CDC recommends that almost all people (with a few rare exceptions) receive the flu vaccine every year. But the disease and the vaccine are poorly understood. In this episode, we discuss the flu, its treatment and its prevention. Resources: Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing outpatient, inpatient, and severe cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza Oseltamivir treatment for influenza in adults: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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11 min
August 29, 2016
Episode 42: Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infections we humans get. In fact, estimates suggest 60-70% of women will have at least one in their lifetime. And many women suffer from them repeatedly. So what causes these infections and how can you treat them? Is there any way to prevent them? And what does diet have to do with it?  We discuss these issues and more in this episode.  Resources: CDC article on E. coli in our food supply and its role in UTIs   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
August 22, 2016
Episode 41: The Biggest Loser and Other News on Obesity and Health
�America has a weight problem. A full one third of us are classified as obese, and other third are obese. This has implications for individuals, families and society that cut across social and economic factors.  We take a look at a handful of studies that take a look at the weight problem from a variety of angles.  Metabolic rate, BMI, whole grain intake,physical inactivity, and more.    Resources: CDC Info on Obesity "The Biggest Loser" Study BMI study Whole Grain Study Exercise to Offset Sitting Cost of Physical Inactivity   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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20 min
August 15, 2016
Episode 40: Sun - Friend and Foe
Everyone thinks of the sun in a different way. Some people crave it and some avoid it. And it turns out there are good health reasons for both. Today on 2 Docs Talk, we'll be covering how the sun affects your health and how to maximize its benefits while minimizing its damage. We'll talk about: UVA vs. UVB rays The UV Index Sunscreen Skin cancer Vitamin D  and more.   Take a listen and get a little info to help you stay sun healthy.   EPA UV Index Database Swedish Studyon Sun Exposure and Smoking American Academy of Dermatology Sunscreen FAQ   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven’t already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!  
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12 min
August 8, 2016
Episode 39: Insomnia - The Epidemic? (Rebroadcast)
  Our understanding of what sleep is and why it is important grows daily. It's clear that poor sleep plays a role in all sorts of disease states. Sadly, more and more people report sleep disturbances to their doctors.  Is this a new epidemic we are facing, or is it just our awareness of the issue that makes it seem so? In this episode, we take a look at the role sleep plays in our health, what happens when sleep is disturbed, and how insomnia can be treated. Take a listen and see what you think. We try not to put you to sleep, but you might want to grab a cup of coffee whiel you listen anyway. Resources: Arianna Huffington's story Sleep and Chronic Disease Sleep loss and inflammation Sleep, ghrelin, leptin and weight gain Meta analyis of melatoning and sleep duration Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia  
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13 min
August 1, 2016
Episode 38: Cholesterol - What We Don't Know (Rebroadcast)
Because individuals with high cholesterol levels often develop heart disease, we've come to accept that high cholesterol - especially "bad" cholesterol, or LDL - causes heart disease. But it can't be said often enough that correlation does not equal causation, and it is beginning to look more and more like a causal realtionship between cholesterol and heart disease just isn't there.  In this episode we talk about the status of treating cholesterol to prevent heart disease and about a drug trial that punctuates the whole process with a giant question mark.  Take a listen and see what you think. Resources: Number Needed to Treat with Statins for Primary Prevention Number Needed to Treat with Statins for Secondary Prevention Evacitrapib Study Stopped Because of Clinical Futility American Heart Association Guidelines for Prevention with Statins  
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13 min
July 25, 2016
Episode 37: Medicare for All (Rebroadcast)
In this episode, we dig into the terms being bandied about by politicians this year. Medicare for all, single-payer, socialized medicine. What do they all mean? Are they all the same or are there differences between these systems.  And what would we do, today, to start making healthcare work a little better? Resources: Per Capita Health Spending by Country Gallup Poll on Healthcare Satisfaction by Country  
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12 min
July 18, 2016
Episode 36: The Current Status of Alzheimer Disease (Rebroadcast)
One of the big scary pieces of growing old is the possiblity of developing Alzheimer Dementia. This progressive neurological disease is poorly understood, meaning the options for prevention and treatment have a long way to go. In this episode, we talk about what the disease is, current options for treatment, the reality of prevention, and an approach to choosing long term care.   Resources: Systematic review of studies on cholinesterase inhibitors JAMA Neurology meta analysis of memantine Risk reducing effect of education on in Alzheimer's disease Lumosity fined $2 million for deceptive advertising Non-profit vs. for profit nursing homes CMS Five Star Rating  
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13 min
July 11, 2016
Episode 35: Is Gluten Free the Answer
The gluten-free phenomenon has grown into a $2.5 billion industry in the U.S. The question we have to ask is if the medical concern from gluten is enough to justify such a huge national expenditure. In this episode, we look at the disorders behind gluten and wheat allergies, gluten sensitivities and the science that supports these diagnoses.  
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16 min
July 4, 2016
Episode 34: Are Supplements Good Medicine? (Rebroadcast)
The supplement industry is a big one - estimates place it anywhere from $12 billion to $37 billion.  However, if you put that number in the context of healthcare spending overall, it's not too crazy...if supplements are effective and safe. But issues with the approval and regulations of dietary supplements make leave us with many unanswered questions about the so-called "natural" products on the market. In this episode we examine supplements, homeopathic remedies, the placebo effect and much more. So take a listen, and leave a comment if you have thoughts on the topic. References: Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Placebos Without Deception Perception of Drug Cost Influences Placebo Effect Be sure and leave a comment if you have any thoughts on the show. And you know we'd appreciate it so much if you would leave us a review in iTunes! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher
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14 min
June 27, 2016
Episode 33: Hepatitis C - The Solution is Here
    Hepatitis C infection is on the rise in recent years. The growing opioid epidemic has multiplied the problem, as the primary means of spread is IV drug use.  Surprisingly only 35 percent of those infected received treatment even though excellent treatment available is for this devastating disease. Not surprisingly, drug costs are a major factor in this issue. Join us as we discuss the issue of Hep C and what can be done about it. Resources: American Journal of Managed Care Special Issue on Hepatitis C Virus Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven't already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
June 20, 2016
Episode 32: Direct-to-Consumer Marketing
  If you watch any tv at all, it's likely you've seen a drug ad. These ads generally show seemingly healthy people living normal lives, the message being the drug did this for them. But are the drug ads telling the whole story? And should they even be advertising directly to consumers to begin with? We discuss this issue on today's episode.   Resources: Nivolumab Research from New England Journal of Medicine What the FDA has to say about drug ads Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven't already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
June 13, 2016
Episode 31: Pediculosis, aka, Head Lice
  Lice are an issue that many parents of elementary students have to deal with, often more than once. In this episode we discuss the three different types of lice - body lice, pubic lice, and head lice - how to get them, the health threats associated with them, and what works to get rid of them.  Resources: The CDC on head lice treatment An Interesting Paper if You Want to Get Totally Geeky on Lice Dr. Pearlman's Site on the Cetaphil Treatment and Lice   Be sure and subscribe in iTunes or Stitcher if you haven't already.  And you know we’d appreciate it so much if you would tell your friends about 2 Docs Talk! Listen on iTunes Listen on Stitcher Now Available on Google Play Music!
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12 min
June 6, 2016
Episode 30: What to Do About Chronic Back Pain
Back pain is second only to cancer as a cause of long term disability. This health problem is damaging to individuals and costly to society. And we don't have much in our arsenal that is effective at treating it. This week, we discuss the difference between acute and chronic back pain with regard to treatment and outcomes. We also discuss the role of surgery, medications, alternative therapies, and some interesting new research on what helps resolve chronic back pain. Resources: Research on efficacy of epidural steroid injections for back pain Trends in spinal fusion surgery American College of Physicians Guidelines for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain
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13 min
May 30, 2016
Episode 29: Insomnia - The Epidemic?
  Our understanding of what sleep is and why it is important grows daily. It's clear that poor sleep plays a role in all sorts of disease states. Sadly, more and more people report sleep disturbances to their doctors.  Is this a new epidemic we are facing, or is it just our awareness of the issue that makes it seem so? In this episode, we take a look at the role sleep plays in our health, what happens when sleep is disturbed, and how insomnia can be treated. Take a listen and see what you think. We try not to put you to sleep, but you might want to grab a cup of coffee whiel you listen anyway. Resources: Arianna Huffington's story Sleep and Chronic Disease Sleep loss and inflammation Sleep, ghrelin, leptin and weight gain Meta analyis of melatoning and sleep duration Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia
More info...
13 min
May 23, 2016
Episode 28: Telemedicine and Its Role as We Know It
In a world when concerns about healthcare costs, access to care, and medical complications create significant barriers to medical care, telemedicine has an obvious role to fill.  But what are the potential downsides of a technology that is being adopted faster than we can track? Is it effective? Is it safe? Is it a door for the unscrupulous ot take advantage of the unsuspecting? We discuss these and other issues of the growing field of telemedicine.  Resources: AMA policy on telemedicine AAFP debate on telemedicine policy AAP on telemedicine and the "medical home" Hospital at Home Use of telemedicine to prevent preterm labor
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13 min
May 16, 2016
Episode 27: Pets and Pathogens
Both of us, Kendall and Amy, have dogs named Goose. This was purely coincidental, and we are as surprised by that fact as anyone. It's a little uncanny how much they resemble one another, too. If you'd like to see the Geese, we've added their pictures over at 2DocsTalk.com. These two certainly live the life of Riley, but they aren't the only canines who have it so good. We are a country of pet lovers. We spend over $60 billion annually on food, vet bills, toys, and silly extravagances for our animal companions. We love them, and can't imagine life without them. But did you know your pet can make you sick - and the other way around?  Today we discuss zoonotic infections - those infections that are spread from animal to human. Rabies, toxoplasmosis, and leptospirosis are a few diseases that fall into this category. We'll talk about how they are spread and treated, and give some tips on how to prevent the. We'll also talk about how we can make our pets sick, too. It's a fun show! Resources: The Thanksgiving Effect The CDC on pets and salmonella CDC info on rabies 
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14 min
May 9, 2016
Episode 26: Do Hormones Make Sense During Menopause?
Over the last couple of decades, the conversation surrounding hormone replacement therapy and menopause has been confusing. Does it work? Is it safe? What about alternative therapies? it's hard to sort out conflicting information coming from various sources. In this episode we discuss: The recent history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) HRT for symptom relief HRT, endometrial hyperplasia, and uterine cancer HRT and cardiovascular disease HRT and breast cancer Bioidentical hormones And more. Resources The Bitch is Back Study of Women's Health Across the Naiton (SWAN) The Women's Health Initiative
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12 min
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